From fragmented objects to linked data: Paradigm shifts in the study and archiving of artists’ publishing
Five Iterations of Carolee Schneemann’s Parts of a Body House
Linked Open Data in Rhizome’s ArtBase Archive
Toward a Feminist Approach for Modeling Data in the Digital Archive of Artists’ Publishing
Embracing “Tentacular Thinking” Across Rhizomatic Systems: A Call for (Inter)Action, Not a Conclusion
- As formulated by the feminist physicist Karen Barad, the theory of agential realism asserts that things, objects, individuals, and actions do not preexist their interaction as discrete entities or gestures; rather, they materialize through intra-action and are configured as such through the connection. “Entanglement” is the intertwining of iterations with one another. Barad’s notion of entanglement allows for an understanding of matter and material as iterative, co-constituted, and inherently entangled. Karen Barad, introduction to Meeting the Universe Halfway: Quantum Physics and the Entanglement of Matter and Meaning (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007), iv.
The authors would like to thank, and acknowledge funding from, the AHRC (Arts and Humanities Research Council, UK) for their respective PhDs, and thank Ami Clarke for initiating the DAAP project and securing funding through Arts Council England and Wikimedia UK.
- Lucy Lippard, “Double Spread,” in Put About: A Critical Anthology on Independent Publishing, ed. Maria Fusco and Ian Hunt (London: Book Works, 2004), 84.
- For artists’ magazines, see Gwen Allen, Artists’ Magazines: An Alternative Space for Art (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2011). For avant-garde composition, see Liz Kotz, Words to be Looked At: Language in 1960s Art (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007). For histories of experimental writing and poetry, see Sophie Seita, Provisional Avant-Gardes: Little Magazine Communities from Dada to Digital (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2019).
- See Tom Nesmith, “The Concept of Societal Provenance and Records of Nineteenth-Century Aboriginal–European Relations in Western Canada: Implications for Archival Theory and Practice,” Archival Science 6, no. 3–4 (December 2006): 351–60; Katie Shilton and Ramesh Srinivasan, “Participatory Appraisal and Arrangement for Multicultural Archival Collections,” Archivaria 63 (Spring 2007): 87–101; and Kimberly A. Christen, “Does Information Really Want to Be Free? Indigenous Knowledge Systems and the Question of Openness,” International Journal of Communication 6 (2012): 2870–93, https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/1618/828.
- Terry Cook, “Archival Science and Postmodernism: New Formulations for Old Concepts,” Archival Science 1, no. 1 (March 2001): 3–24; Margaret Hedstrom, “Archives, Memory, and Interfaces with the Past,” Archival Science 2, no. 1–2 (March 2002): 21–43; and Chris Hurley, “Parallel Provenance (If These Are Your Records, Where Are Your Stories?),” 2005, https://www.descriptionguy.com/images/WEBSITE/parallel-provenance.pdf.
- Diana Taylor, The Archive and the Repertoire: Performing Cultural Memory in the Americas (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2003); Matthew G. Kirschenbaum, Mechanisms: New Media and the Forensic Imagination (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2007); Wolfgang Ernst, Digital Memory and the Archive (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2012); and Annet Dekker, Collecting and Conserving Net Art: Moving Beyond Conventional Methods (Abingdon, UK: Routledge, 2018).
- See Cook, “Archival Science and Postmodernism”; Antoinette Burton, ed., Archive Stories: Facts, Fictions, and the Writing of History (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005); Erin Canning, “Affective Metadata for Object Experiences in the Art Museum” (master’s thesis, University of Toronto, 2018); and Michelle Caswell, “Dusting for Fingerprints: Introducing Feminist Standpoint Appraisal,” Journal of Critical Library and Information Studies 3 (2019), http://journals.litwinbooks.com/index.php/jclis/article/view/113.
- Although it is a well-known fact that technologies embody the cultural values and biases of the field in which they have been designed to operate, it is also worth noting that to move away from legacy software systems—especially in the context of very large institutions with complex internal departmental structures and hierarchies—can be both very technically complex and also costly in terms of time and funding. The shift away from such systems is therefore not a decision that can be taken lightly or implemented overnight. See Geoffrey C. Bowker and Susan Leigh Star, Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999). See also Hurley, “Parallel Provenance”; Michael Jones, “From Catalogues to Contextual Networks: Reconfiguring Collection Documentation in Museums,” Archives and Records 39, no. 1 (2018): 4–20; and Jeremy Munro, Erin Canning, and Amanda Dearloph, “The Limit Does Exist: Reevaluating Collection Management Systems for the 21st Century,” paper presented at Museum Computer Network, November 5–8, 2019, San Diego, slides available at https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1ngZSzi9w5pmPLm-LrcFqAUwpFHyZehiNl3iVvpVdJsg/edit#slide=id.p1.
- The Dublin Core Metadata Initiative has developed a small set of vocabulary terms which can be used to describe physical resources, such as books and CDs, as well as digital resources (images, videos, web pages, etc.). It is also an ISO standard. See “DCMI Metadata Terms” (2017), http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/.
- It is worth noting that this can be observed when a user accesses separate software systems that are in place at different institutions. The problems of siloed cataloging systems have been addressed to some degree by union catalogs and centralized services such as WorldCat by OCLC (Online Computer Library Center), but centralized aggregators still rely on redundant copies of individual records and the error-prone processes of record linking and deduplication often lead to inconsistent and/or duplicate records. At the same time, services such as VIAF (Virtual International Authority File), which act as centralized naming authorities, are invaluable for uniquely identifying individuals and name variations, but until all catalog systems adopt linked open data protocols consistently, truly federated search systems—i.e., distributed systems as opposed to centralized aggregators—cannot be realized.
- For more on the closed database architecture, see Paul Dourish, “No SQL: The Shifting Materialities of Database Technology,” Computational Culture 4 (2014), http://computationalculture.net/no-sql-the-shifting-materialities-of-database-technology/.
- The research is part of Karen Di Franco’s PhD thesis, Embodied Iteration: Materialising the Language of Writing and Performance in Women Artists’ Publishing (1968–1979) (University of Reading, 2020), which was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council as a Collaborative Doctoral Partnership between the University of Reading and Tate Britain.
- Carolee Schneemann was an experimental visual artist known for her multimedia works engaging the body, narrative, sexuality, and gender. Schneemann made her first artist’s book with Beau Geste Press in 1972 and collaborated with them on a series of projects, including performances and screenings of her films, as well as contributing to other published materials. These publications are rarely included in accounts of her work, particularly those that relate to the period she spent in the United Kingdom from 1970 to 1973.
- Su Braden, “Poetry and Writings,” Time Out, April 28, 1972, n.p. There is no perceptual logic to the material’s arrangement in the book itself: it is not sorted chronologically, and there are no sections or pagination. Instead, design elements introduced through the process of reproduction—such as image overprinting, illustrations, inserts, colored inks and papers, actual coffee stains, and doodles—cohere the material visually.
- Eichhorn asserts the disparity between women as agents and subjects of (and with) the archive. Kate Eichhorn, The Archival Turn in Feminism: Outrage in Order (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2013). Tamboukou positions the narrative capabilities of intra-actions as described through the encounters that emerge between phenomena—documents, and by extension words—as instructed, scored, or spoken. As an amalgamation of properties and forces, the archive directly influences the formations of data and knowledge that are generated from it. Tamboukou combines feminist neo-materialist theories to frame the researcher’s questions and interpretations as intra-actions of relations between space, time, and matter within the archive. See Maria Tamboukou, “Feeling Narrative in the Archive: The Question of Serendipity,” Qualitative Research 16, no. 2 (2016): 151–66; and Maria Tamboukou, “Stories That Matter: Feminist Methodologies in the Archive,” Institute of Contemporary Arts, London, November 22, 2015, https://archive.ica.art/whats-on/stories-matter-feminist-methodologies-archive/.
- Critically, Schneemann’s publishing questions the differentiation of the archive as a repository from its function as repertoire by collapsing performance within printed formats through various forms of embodiment. This is presented as an explicitly feminist approach—a conceptualization of bodily data that harnesses the mechanism of editioning and distribution as seen in Parts of a Body House Book and more recognizably in the 1974 performance Interior Scroll, in which Schneemann removed a scroll containing text from her vagina, then read from it.
- James Tenney to Schneemann, February 12–13, 1970; reprinted in Carolee Schneemann and Christine Stiles, Correspondence Course: An Epistolary History of Carolee Schneemann and Her Circle (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2010), 168–69.
- Carolee Schneemann, from her introduction in Parts of a Body House Book (London: Beau Geste Press, 1972), n.p.
- The quote continues, “To make a common, cheap process—mimeo—extraordinary. To tumble together samples of all my writing.” Carolee Schneemann, quoted in Colin Naylor and Genesis P-Orridge, eds., Contemporary Artists (London: St. James Press, 1977), 858.
- The edition size and distribution of Caterpillar and Fantastic Architecture, with print runs of 2,000 copies each, considerably outstrip the publications of Beau Geste Press: Parts of a Body House Book (first edition, 75 copies; revised edition, 200 copies) and Schmuck (also 200 copies).
- Carolee Schneemann, “Parts of a Body House,” Caterpillar 3/4, ed. Clayton Eshleman (April–July 1968): pp 190-194. From the British Library Rare Books Collection.
- Carolee Schneemann, “Parts of a Body House,” in Fantastic Architecture, ed. Dick Higgins and Wolf Vostell (New York: Something Else Press, 1969): n.p. From Tate Library.
- Carolee Schneemann, “Parts of a Body House,” in Parts of a Body House Book (Cullompton, Devon, UK: Beau Geste Press, 1972): n.p. From the Artist Book Collection, Tate Library.
- Carolee Schneemann, “Parts of a Body House,” Schmuck, no. 1 (March 1972): n.p. From the Beau Geste Press/David Mayer Archive (TGA 185).
- Carolee Schneemann, “Parts of a Body House,” Earth Ship, no. 10/11 (August 1972): pp 1-3. From the UCL Small Press Collection.
- This is not a critique of the cataloging practices of any particular institution. This is a comment on inherited values in catalogs and finding aids wherein information on some artists was deemed more important than others. The difficulty in understanding the scope and connection of material relating to Schneemann was exacerbated by this disparity.
- Between 2016 and 2021, the ArtBase archive was the main object of study of an AHRC-funded collaborative doctoral partnership between Rhizome and the Centre for the Study of the Networked Image at London South Bank University, aiming at a complete redesign of the archival front-end and back-end systems. Lozana Rossenova, “Model–Database–Interface: A Study of the Redesign of the ArtBase, and the Role of User Agency in Born-Digital Archives” (PhD diss., London South Bank University, 2021).
- Eero Hyvönen, “Publishing and Using Cultural Heritage Linked Data on the Semantic Web,” Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology, 2 (1), (2012): 1–159; and Allana Mayer, “Linked Open Data for Artistic and Cultural Resources,” Art Documentation 34, no. 1 (Spring 2015): 3–14.
- The term data model is often used synonymously with the term ontology. In this essay, we have opted for the former term, since it is more inclusive and is typically used in association with the database software described later in the paper. Formal ontologies include classes and relations, as well as specific constraints around these (called domains and ranges). The database for which we designed our data model, however, does not enforce such formal constraints, nor does it make formal distinction between classes and instances of classes. For example, the class role and its instances such as artist, editor, or publisher are not formally distinct in the logical structure of the database, and therefore can also be considered part of our data model, but would not be part of a formal ontology.
- Net art is the favored term for describing works archived in ArtBase in the literature this essay references. It is broader than the earlier term net.art, which characterizes a specific group of mostly European artists working in the mid- to late 1990s. As described by Michael Connor, net art is not just about creative use of the internet, but also about examining the conditions of participation in it; see Conner, “Net Art’s Material: Making an Anthology,” in The Art Happens Here: Net Art Anthology, ed. Connor, Aria Dean, and Dragan Espenschied (New York: Rhizome, 2019): 5–12. In that sense, it can involve performative or participatory elements outside a browser window. Even so, in ArtBase, the primary experiential context for the artworks is the internet.
- ArtBase invited artists to submit their works of net art to the archive and offered various options for data (and metadata) description. To date, the archive spans more than twenty years of networked artistic practices and comprises over two thousand artworks. Still, the initial open approach that aimed to operate outside the paradigms of institutional gatekeeping did not necessarily translate into an automatically diverse online space. When the database was officially closed to new contributions in 2015, staff members recalled the concern that there simply was not enough diversity of voices in the archive; instead it was dominated by a relatively small group of mostly Western male technologists. Running counter to the ideology of openness, their impression at the time was that the only way to allow marginalized voices into the archive was to enforce stricter curation and to acquire works for the archive by commission only. See Lozana Rossenova, “1. ArtBase Archive Context and History: Discovery Phase and User Research, 2017–2019,” (2020): 17, 101–5, https://lozanaross.github.io/phd-portfolio/docs/1_Report_ARTBASE-HISTORY_2020.pdf.
- For networked assemblages, see Dekker, Collecting and Conserving.
- The possibility for any digital media to exist as multiple copies simultaneously across variable infrastructures sets up the conditions for what media theorist Lev Manovich refers to as a fundamental characteristic of digital media: variability. Lev Manovich, The Language of New Media (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001). Technical variability results in performance variability in terms of how users interact with artworks under different conditions and at different time periods (e.g., at the time an artwork is released, or once the technology dependencies become obsolete). In order to account for this, Rhizome drew on theory from performance scholars, such as Taylor’s notion of the repertoire, to articulate their approach to the ArtBase archive, wherein the possibility to reperform the artworks plays a significant role in preserving embodied digital (user) memory. See Connor, “Net Art’s Material.” See also Taylor, The Archive and the Repertoire.
- Rossenova, “ArtBase Archive Context and History,” 21–23.
- Dourish, “No SQL.”
- Rossenova, “ArtBase Archive Context and History.”
- Joan Cobb, “The Journey to Linked Open Data: The Getty Vocabularies,” Journal of Library Metadata 15, no. 3–4 (2015): 155.
- Rossenova, “ArtBase Archive Context and History,” 17, 101–105; Rossenova, “Model–Database–Interface,” 79.
- Indigenous knowledge systems offer a counterpoint to a Western, colonial discourse that equates openness with democracy. In her article “Does Information Really Want to be Free? Indigenous Knowledge Systems and the Question of Openness,” digital humanities and indigenous cultural heritage scholar Kimberly A. Christen unpacks what she refers to as the “information wants to be free meme” as a Western construct that weaves “a narrative of information freedom as a bedrock of national freedom.” She discusses legal scholars and internet-freedom advocates who routinely quote “[Thomas] Jefferson or [US Supreme Court Justice Louis] Brandeis, along with a handful of other early American thinkers … in support of a ‘balanced’ intellectual property regime that takes as its main focus the maintenance of a public domain where ideas move freely, creating an information commons.” Christen, “Does Information Really Want to Be Free?,” 2876. On how ideologies of meritocracy, flat hierarchies, or universal access follow existing gender biases, see Os Keyes, “Questioning Wikidata,” (keynote presentation, WikidataCon, Berlin, October 24–26, 2019), https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Wikidata:WikidataCon_2019/Program/Sessions/Keynote:_Questioning_Wikidata.
- See Wikibase, http://wikiba.se/. See also Jean Godby et al., Creating Library Linked Data with Wikibase: Lessons Learned from Project Passage (Dublin, OH: OCLC Research, 2019); and Lydia Pintscher et al., “Wikidata/Wikibase Vision: High-Level Overview,” Wikimedia, August 2019, https://meta.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Vision_and_high_level_overview_for_Wikidata_and_Wikibase.pdf.
- The collaborative features mean that logged-in users can get a range of access options to edit or contribute data, while version control means that a change log is kept, and any edits carried out by a particular contributor can be tracked and reversed if needed. Stacy Allison-Cassin and Dan Scott, “Wikidata: A Platform for Your Library’s Linked Open Data,” Code4Lib 40 (2018), https://journal.code4lib.org/articles/13424.
- The knowledge representation schema of Wikidata and Wikibase uses a flexible system of claims, references, and qualifiers that take advantage of the networked capabilities of LOD. Claims consist of items, properties, and values, with properties acting as edges, or relations, that connect different node entities in the database (i.e., items and corresponding values). References add source information to claims, while qualifiers enrich claims with specifics such as roles, functions, or time spans, among others. “Wikibase: Data Model Primer,” Wikidata, https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Wikibase/DataModel/Primer. On customizing levels of openness, see Sandra Fauconnier, “Many Faces of Wikibase: Rhizome’s Archive of Born-Digital Art and Digital Preservation,” Wikimedia, September 6, 2018, https://wikimediafoundation.org/news/2018/09/06/rhizome-wikibase/.
- A researcher and longstanding participant in Wikimedia projects, Os Keyes focuses their studies on data, gender, and infrastructures of control and has been a vocal critic of the biases within projects such as Wikipedia and Wikidata. In their keynote lecture “Questioning Wikidata” at WikidataCon 2019, they rejected the possibility for a universalist ontological project that doesn’t hurt and abuse its users, arguing instead for more decentralized approaches that embrace plurality and ambiguity. Keyes, “Questioning Wikidata.” A second critical approach to tackling gender biases and structural biases are initiatives such as Art+Feminism, which involve community building and active outreach toward diverse community representatives to enrich Wikimedia projects with information about traditionally marginalized artists and artistic practices. “About,” Art+Feminism, https://artandfeminism.org/about/.
- See Rossenova, “ArtBase Archive Context and History,” 17, 101–5.
- For the development of this new data model, see Lozana Rossenova, “2. ArtBase Users Research Results and Insights: Discovery Phase and User Research 2018,” 2020, https://sites.rhizome.org/artbase-re-design/docs/2_Report_USERS_2020.pdf. See also Rossenova, “Model–Database–Interface.”
- For existing principles in human computer interaction, see Jodi Forlizzi and Katja Battarbee, “Understanding Experience in Interactive Systems,” Across the Spectrum: Design Interactive Systems, DIS2004 (New York: New York Association for Computing Machinery, 2004), 261–68, https://doi.org/10.1145/1013115.1013152; and Susanne Bødker, “Third-Wave HCI, 10 Years Later—Participation and Sharing,” Interactions 22, no. 5 (2015): 24–31.
- For critical STS scholarship, see Susan Leigh Star, Ecologies of Knowledge: Work and Politics in Science and Technology (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1995); and Bowker and Star, Sorting Things Out. For the feminist methodologies to which we allude, see Sandra Harding, ed., The Feminist Standpoint Theory Reader: Intellectual and Political Controversies (New York: Routledge, 2004); Maria Puig de la Bellacasa, Matters of Care: Speculative Ethics in More than Human Worlds (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2017); and Caswell, “Dusting for Fingerprints.”
- For perspectives on the ethico-political context of an information environment, see Puig de la Bellacasa, Matters of Care; and Catherine D’Ignazio and Lauren Klein, Data Feminism (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2020).
- Johanna Drucker, “Performative Materiality and Theoretical Approaches to Interface,” Digital Humanities Quarterly 7, no. 1 (2013), http://www.digitalhumanities.org/dhq/vol/7/1/000143/000143.html.
- As information studies and digital humanities scholar Miriam Posner asserts, this is where the radical potential of the digital humanities, as a field which favors the hybridization of methods across disciplines, lies: “It is not only about shifting the focus of projects so that they feature marginalized communities more prominently; it is about ripping apart and rebuilding the machinery of the archive and database so that it does not reproduce the logic that got us here in the first place.” Miriam Posner, “What’s Next: The Radical, Unrealized Potential of Digital Humanities,” in Debates in the Digital Humanities 2016, ed. Matthew K. Gold and Lauren F. Klein (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2016), 35.
- BIBFRAME stands for Bibliographic Framework and is a data model for bibliographic description, designed to replace the original MARC (machine-readable cataloging) data standard developed by the Library of Congress in the 1960s. “Bibliographic Framework Initiative,” Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/bibframe/. FRBR stands for Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, a conceptual entity–relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). “Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report,” IFLA, February 15, 2009, https://www.ifla.org/publications/functional-requirements-for-bibliographic-records.
- This approach can be likened to the “para-institutional spaces” that, according to Caitlin Cherry and Nicole Maloof, the founders of the alternative arts education group Dark Study, “exist besides and beyond the institution, forming alternatives while overlapping… . They move beyond logics of extraction, remove barriers to accessibility, while embracing new models of knowledge transmission.” See Dark Study, https://www.darkstudy.net/. As an online space that operates apart from traditional institutional structures, defining the DAAP as an archive in the traditional sense is problematic. Given its affiliation with an artists-led space and its core team consisting of arts practitioners and digital humanities researchers (including the authors of this paper), the DAAP can productively be considered within the framework of a radical digital humanities project. It attempts to dismantle the logic of traditional archives in the sense proposed by Posner in “What’s Next” and shares a commitment “to exploring new ways of thinking and to challenging accepted paradigms of meaning-making” identified by Bonnie Ruberg, Jason Boyd, and James Howe as the common principle uniting feminist and queer studies with the ethos of the digital humanities at large. See Bonnie Ruberg, Jason Boyd, and James Howe, “Toward a Queer Digital Humanities,” in Bodies of Information Intersectional Feminism and Digital Humanities, ed. Elizabeth Losh and Jacqueline Wernimont (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2018).
- Ami Clarke, Lozana Rossenova, and Gustavo Grandal Montero, “The Digital Archive of Artists’ Publishing (DAAP): An Email Conversation with Ami Clarke and Lozana Rossenova,” Art Libraries Journal 46, no. 1 (January 2021): 13–22.
- See D’Ignazio and Klein, Data Feminism.
- It focused not only on covering what may be missing from traditional classification systems but also how creators, particularly those from traditionally marginalized communities, may want to identify themselves (or not); see Clarke, Rossenova, and Montero, “The Digital Archive.” For example, one of the key findings from the workshops was the resistance among members of LGBTQ+ communities to conform to fixed categories; rather, they expressed a desire to learn more about the possibilities to introduce new categories into the database system and, crucially, to be able to self-identify with more than a single category—thus moving away from traditional male/female binaries or even the cis/trans binary.
- For example, the property creators/contributors in the DAAP data model flattens the strict distinctions between creators and contributors established within earlier bibliographic standards, while qualifiers such as role allow the assignment of multiple roles to each value for creators/contributors.
- Tamboukou. “Stories that Matter.”
- As positioned by Donna Haraway and quoted by Barad, in this context diffraction records the history of interaction, interference, reinforcement, and difference. Diffraction is understood as a methodology that positions a heterogeneous history unconcerned with original or copy. It is a narrative, graphic, psychological, spiritual, and political technology for making consequential meanings. Haraway, cited in Barad, Meeting the Universe Halfway, 71.
- Barad, Meeting the Universe Halfway, 8.
- Examples include the Getty Institute’s Arts and Architecture Thesaurus, with over fifty thousand unique concepts but still hardly able to describe contemporary media art production, and the European iconographic classification system Iconclass, with nearly thirty thousand concepts but still plagued by outdated, colonial biases. See Alina Kühnl, “Iconclass: Ein Klassifizierungssystem für Kunst—und Mensch?” ARTicle, June 10, 2020, https://thearticle.hypotheses.org/9773. Even if a vocabulary is updated to respond to contemporary socio-technical standards, working with this level of precision can be valuable for highly specialized subject specialists but is prohibitive for wider audiences. Hande Sever, “Biases within Digital Repositories: The Getty Research Portal,” Stedelijk Studies Journal 10 (2020), https://stedelijkstudies.com/journal/biases-within-digital-repositories/.
- For “tentacular thinking,” see Donna Haraway, “Tentacular Thinking: Anthropocene, Capitalocene, Chthulucene,” e-flux Journal 75 (September 2016), https://www.e-flux.com/journal/75/67125/tentacular-thinking-anthropocene- capitalocene-chthulucene/.
How to Cite
Lozana Rossenova and Karen Di Franco, “Iterative Pasts and Linked Futures: A Feminist Approach to Modeling Data in Archives and Collections of Artists’ Publishing,” in Perspectives on Data, ed. Emily Lew Fry and Erin Canning (Art Institute of Chicago, 2022).
This essay has been peer reviewed through an open-review process.
© 2022 by The Art Institute of Chicago. This work is licensed under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/