IIIF Manifest The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) represents a set of open standards that enables rich access to digital media from libraries, archives, museums, and other cultural institutions around the world.
Art Institute of Chicago, “Gaffron Collection Acquired,” The Art Institute of Chicago Quarterly 50, 1 (Feb. 1, 1956), 3 (ill.).
Alan R. Sawyer, Animal Sculpture in Pre-Columbian Art, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1957), pg. 41 (ill.).
Allen Wardwell, Primitive Art in the Collections of the Art Institute of Chicago (Art Institute of Chicago, 1965), fig. 12 (ill.).
Richard Townsend, “Deciphering the Nazca World: Ceramic Images from Ancient Peru,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 11, 2 (Spring 1985), pg. 129 (ill.).
Richard Townsend with Elizabeth Pope. 2016. Indian Art of the Americas at the Art Institute of Chicago. Art Institute of Chicago and Yale University Press, p. 290, cat. 233.
Art Institute of Chicago, Animal Sculpture in Pre-Columbian Art, Oct. 12, 1957–Feb. 2, 1958, cat. pg. 41 (ill.).
Zurich, Switzerland, Museum Rietberg Zurich, Nasca: Geheimnisvolle Zeichen im Alten Peru, June 20–October 3, 1999, cat.; traveled to Vienna, Museum fur Volkerkunde, October 29, 1999–January 31, 2000.
Eduard Gaffron (1861–1931), Lima, Peru, from 1892 to 1912, then Berlin, from [History of the Department report (Joanne Behrens, 1985) and correspondence in curatorial file]; by descent to his children Mercedes Gaffron, Berlin then Durham S.C. and Hans Gaffron (1902–1979), Berlin then Chicago [correspondence and documentation of the Gaffron Collection in curatorial file]; sold to the Art Institute, 1955.
Object information is a work in progress and may be updated as new research findings emerge. To help improve this record, please email . Information about image downloads and licensing is available here.