Dates are not always precisely known, but the Art Institute strives to present this information as consistently and legibly as possible. Dates may be represented as a range that spans decades, centuries, dynasties, or periods and may include qualifiers such as c. (circa) or BCE.
The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) represents a set of open standards that enables rich access to digital media from libraries, archives, museums, and other cultural institutions around the world.
Clarissa von Spee, “Visiting Steles: Variations on a Painting Theme,” Shane McCausland and Yin Hwang, On Telling Images of China: Essays in Narrative Painting and Visual Culture (Hong Kong U Press, 2014), pp. 228-230, Fig. 7.8.
Object information is a work in progress and may be updated as new research findings emerge. To help improve this record, please email . Information about image downloads and licensing is available here.