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River and Mountain Landscape

A work made of hanging scroll; ink on paper.
CC0 Public Domain Designation

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  • A work made of hanging scroll; ink on paper.


Ming dynasty (1368–1644)


Xiang Shengmo (Chinese, 1597-1658)

About this artwork

Xiang Shengmo was a grandson of Xiang Yuanbian (1525–90), a distinguished connoisseur and collector of painting and calligraphy. The artist drew upon a wide range of ancient sources for his small-scale landscapes, which are renowned for their meticulous draftsmanship and quiet mood. The lone figure depicted here likely represents a reclusive scholar-official who has withdrawn from society into the solitude of nature—an ideal to which Xiang and other artists aspired. The collapse of the Ming dynasty and the loss of his family’s wealth, however, forced Xiang to sell his paintings for a livelihood rather than continue to paint for his own pleasure.


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Arts of Asia


Xiang Shengmo


River and Mountain Landscape


China (Artist's nationality:)

Date  Dates are not always precisely known, but the Art Institute strives to present this information as consistently and legibly as possible. Dates may be represented as a range that spans decades, centuries, dynasties, or periods and may include qualifiers such as c. (circa) or BCE.



Hanging scroll; ink on paper


Signature Xiang Shengmo hua 項聖謨畫 Seals Xiang Bozi zuo 項伯子作, relief, square; Chiziye 癡子業, intaglio, square; Xiang Shengmo yin 項聖謨印, intaglio, square


54.2 × 27 cm (21 5/16 × 10 5/8 in.)

Credit Line

Kate S. Buckingham Endowment Fund

Reference Number


IIIF Manifest  The International Image Interoperability Framework (IIIF) represents a set of open standards that enables rich access to digital media from libraries, archives, museums, and other cultural institutions around the world.

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Extended information about this artwork

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