Dates are not always precisely known, but the Art Institute strives to present this information as consistently and legibly as possible. Dates may be represented as a range that spans decades, centuries, dynasties, or periods and may include qualifiers such as c. (circa) or BCE.
Westerbeck, Colin. 2004. “The James Van Der Zee Studio.” Exh. cat. The Art Institute of Chicago. p. 28.
Art Institute of Chicago, “The James VanDerZee Studio,” January 24–April 25, 2004. (Colin Westerbeck)
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