CRITERIA FOR #510:
tales came to be classified as #510
The Folklore Society of Britain commissioned Cox to study all known Cinderella stories. She investigated published variants as well as unpublished folklore archives from various countries. She produced the pioneering volume, Cinderella: Three Hundred and Forty-Five Variants of Cinderella, Catskin and, Cap o'Rushes, Abstracted and Tabulated with a Discussion of Medieval Analogues and Notes.
Without benefit of folklore indexes or widespread anthologies Cox blazed a trail by dividing the tales she discovered into five broad categories. She devised five key Cinderella Types:
According to Cox
Type B expands upon the mysterious behavior of the father figure who offers the girl little or no assistance; this father is the cause of her suffering via incestuous intent or practice. He causes the girl to flee under cover of disguise (most notably a donkeyskin). She chooses to rebel by running away from home and into the arms of a lover. These tales became highly censored and the muse for many surrealists.
Type C focused on another type of father figure, one who abandons the girl based upon his own misjudgment of her character. The girl is likened to King Lear's daughter Cordelia whose sisters are akin to the evil stepsisters.
is a catchall for those related versions that are not so easily catalogued
but share a mixture of elements typical of Cinderellaesque stories.
Similarities to Type A include the heroine's abusive family, her assistance
from benevolent and magical animals and her marriage to a gentleman
of higher social status. A German variant of this type Little One-Eyes,
Little Two-eyes, and Little Three-eyes provides examples of the difference
between Type A and Type D. Two-eyes does not attend a dance, church
or leave her home. In addition, her prospective husband recognizes her
value by her gift to harvest the fruit of a magical tree.
and 1930 modest research of fairy tales was realized, with the notable
exception that stories were anthologized and folklore indexes were finally
devised. In 1932, R. D. Jameson, while a professor at the National Tsing
Hua University, discovered and lectured on the Chinese variant Yeh-hsein.
A. A young
girl is ill-treated
a time of menial service at home or abroad
meets the prince
is identified by
E. She marries the Prince.
F. If her suffering is due to the fact that she told her father she "loves him as she loves salt," - she now serves him unsalted food to prove how necessary salt is to human happiness.
Research related to the evolution of folklore heightened exponentially in 1951 with Swedish folklorist Anna Brigitta Rooth's doctoral dissertation published as the Cinderella Cycle, an examination of seven hundred versions of the fundamental Cinderella story, including authentic and distinctive subtypes. Her mission was to discern which type of Cinderella variant was the original and to determine how the tale spread. The combined scholarship of Rooth and Cox continues to be a valued reference of folklorists today who have in general deserted the quest for folklore's origins to seek the study of its living traditions.
In1961, Stith Thompson revised the Finnish scholar Antti Aarne's index of tale types first published in 1910 as The Types of the Folktale. Aarne had typed Cinderella as tale Type # 510. Thompson's revisions revealed additional subtypes of #510.
Alan Dundes combined the scholarship of Cox, Rooth, Aarne and Thompson to create a comparative typological chart, enabling one to review the evolutionary research at a glance for similarities and differences of perspective.
Alan Dundes' Comparative Typological Chart *
* Alan Dundes,
Cinderella A Folklore Casebook. (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.,