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Cartoon: Le Roi des Porcs
V. Lenepvue (French). Le Roi des porcs, no. 4 from Musée des horreurs, 1899–1900. Jewish Museum. Caricatured in this image as a pig sitting on his published works, Émile Zola (1840–1902), author of the pro-Dreyfus manifesto "J'accuse," applies excrement from a container labeled "international ca-ca" onto a map of France.
Although such images have been a favorite device of generations of graphic satirists, Efimov acknowledged theinfluence of the poster-size broadsheets comprising the anti-Semitic series Musée des horreurs, published in France in 1899–1900, during the Alfred Dreyfus affair