Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde is an unprecedented exhibition devoted to Henri-Louis-Ambroise Vollard (18661939), the legendary art dealer, patron, and publisher who put modern art on the map by launching the careers of some of its major figures. Drawing upon the dealer’s archives (including account books and letters), this unique exhibition weighs the legends that have grown up around Vollard’s colorful personality against archival facts. It sheds new light not only on Vollard’s art dealing strategies but also on the previously unexplored story of his unusual relationships with the artists whose work he promoted, exhibited, and sold. While it is true that he represented artists like Francisco Iturrino and Jacqueline Marval whose names are forgotten today, there are many others including Pierre Bonnard, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Pablo Picasso whose names are renowned today as pioneers of modernism.
This unique exhibition offers the opportunity to see works by these major modern masters, and view special galleries devoted to individual artists that feature works from Vollard’s most important solo exhibitions, including paintings from Vollard’s groundbreaking 1895 Cézanne exhibition; a never-before reassembled triptych from his 1896 Van Gogh retrospective; and the masterwork from Gauguin’s important 1898 exhibition of Tahitian works, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? lent from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The exhibition also includes paintings from Picasso’s first French exhibition in 1901 as well as Henri Matisse’s 1904 solo exhibition, and three works from André Derain’s London series, commissioned by Vollard around 1906. Every work in the exhibition passed through Vollard’s hands at some point, having been commissioned, exhibited, sold, or owned by him. Some, like Derain’s London series or the bronze sculptures by Renoir and Aristide Maillol, would not have been created were it not for Vollard’s encouragement and support. By the time Vollard had crafted his self-image in his Recollections of a Picture Dealer in 1936, he was already a legendary, colorful, and internationally known figure.
AMBROISE VOLLARD: HOW DOES A LEGEND HAPPEN?
Vollard was born on July 3, 1866 and grew up on the island of Réunion, a remote French colony in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar. At age 19 he went to Montpellier in southern France to study law. Arriving in Paris at the age of 21 to continue his studies, he had few contacts and no credentials for the art world he was entering. Between lectures he often hunted through boxes of books, prints, and drawings in the stalls along the Seine River. Soon he stopped studying law and embarked on a career as an art dealer. Turned down for an apprenticeship by the dealer Georges Petit because he knew no foreign languages, Vollard worked briefly under Alphonse Dumas, who specialized in academic painting and who rejected Vollard’s suggestion that he show the Impressionists.
Striking out on his own around 1890, Vollard struggled to earn a living, selling drawings and prints he had picked up cheaply from the stalls around the Seine. He had the shrewd idea of acquiring from Édouard Manet’s widow a group of the artist’s drawings and unfinished paintings, which he exhibited to rave reviews in 1894. Most likely as a result of this exhibition Vollard met Renoir and Edgar Degas, and he began dealing the works of both artists. In September 1893, Vollard rented a small shop at 37 rue Laffitte in the heart of the Paris art world. He opened his art gallery in auspicious times: the 1890s witnessed the decline of the unwieldy state-sponsored Salon system, which was centered around large, annual exhibitions that were highly publicized. The Paris Salons, which favored conservative, academic art, had been the chief forum for the exhibition and sale of art for more than a century. This period also witnessed the rise of the commercial dealer. However, by the time Vollard began seriously dealing in art, the few dealers showing avant-garde paintingPère Tanguy, Theo van Gogh (at Boussod and Valadon) as well as Le Barc de Bouttevillehad died. Throughout the 1890s and early 1900s, Vollard exhibited and sold works by Cézanne, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Picasso, and others, defining his position as a dealer in avant-garde art and shaping the reputations of those artists.
Vollard himself was full of contradictions and remains an enigma. Opinions about him differed widely. Some artists, like Matisse, complained that the dealer exploited them, equating his name with the French word voleur, meaning “thief.” Others, however, valued his loyalty and generosity. Cézanne was eternally grateful to Vollard for rescuing him from obscurity, and Renoir was a lifelong friend. Subject to abrupt shifts in mood, Vollard was an amusing and articulate storyteller but often lapsed into morose silence. He was physically imposing but also known to be patient and gentle, qualities captured endearingly by Bonnard in Ambroise Vollard with His Cat. In short, Vollard escapes easy categorization, as illustrated in Picasso’s multifaceted portrait of him.
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As Vollard’s reputation as an art dealer grew in the 1890s, he moved his gallery from 37 rue Laffitte just down the street to a larger gallery at 39 rue Laffitte. In 1895 he inaugurated this gallery and solidified his position as a dealer of avant-garde art with an exhibition of Van Gogh’s work, probably at the suggestion of Van Gogh’s friend, the artist Émile Bernard. Van Gogh died in 1890, when Vollard was 24 and before Vollard had taken an active role in the Parisian art world; it is doubtful the two ever met. For this exhibition, Vollard assembled about twenty works from various sources, including the artists Gauguin and Émile Schuffenecker. The exhibition met with little commercial success but attracted the favorable notice of Henry Laget, a writer with connections to families who owned a number of Van Gogh's paintings. Through him, Vollard was able to procure works by Van Gogh, though it is uncertain exactly when the dealer acquired portraits of the Roulin family, who lived in the town of Arles in southern France. Armand Roulin depicts the son of Van Gogh’s friend, a postman in Arles. The portrait remained with the Roulin family until Vollard purchased it, probably in 1900. In 1903, Vollard sold it to German art critic and collector Karl-Ernst Osthaus, who in 1902 had founded the Museum Folkwang, now a major collection of 19th- and 20th-century art located in Essen, Germany.
Vollard held a larger Van Gogh exhibition in late 1896 that included major works from throughout the artist’s career borrowed from his estate. The market for works by Van Gogh at this time was thin but found an audience over the following decadesespecially in Germanyand appreciated in value. Vollard never again borrowed so many works from the Van Gogh estate or held another exhibition of the artist’s works, but he did continue to acquire and sell them. Vollard kept Van Gogh’s work in the public eye and established, posthumously, the artist’s reputation as modern master.
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In November 1895, soon after his first Van Gogh show, Vollard hosted Cézanne’s first solo exhibition. Before this retrospective, the artist had been virtually unknown in Paris. According to his lively and sometimes highly inventive memoirs, Vollard first spied Cézanne’s work in the window of Père Tanguy's shop, and from that moment it had been his ambition to exhibit the artist’s works. Cézanne, who often demonstrated his helplessness in practical matters, relied on his son to act as his business manager. (No doubt Vollard shrewdly recognized that Cézanne was the only major figure of the Impressionists without a dealer.) Through Cézanne’s son, Vollard secured approximately 150 works, which were most likely displayed on a rotating basis. Vollard claimed he risked his entire fortune on the exhibition and couldn’t even afford to frame the paintings properly. By choosing to exhibit a painting in the front window that the French government had rejected earlier from the Gustave Caillebotte bequest, Vollard intended this exhibition as a slap in the face to the art establishment. He took great pride in his status as an avant-garde and antiestablishment dealer throughout his career.
For artists and collectors, to whom Cézanne’s work had been largely unknown for nearly two decades, the exhibition was a revelation. Practically overnight Cézanne became a revered master. Degas, Claude Monet, and Camille Pissarro were among the artists who purchased his works. Cézanne’s images of nudes, such as Bathers, held a strong appeal for other artists, and Degas, Gauguin, Monet, Pissarro, and Renoir all owned at least one of these compositions. Younger artists, including Bonnard, Maurice Denis, Matisse, and Picasso, were also inspired by Cézanne’s nudes. Monet bought this particular canvas and hung it in his bedroom.
These artists also guided collectors to Vollard’s gallery. Pissarro introduced one of Vollard’s earliest American collectors, Egisto Fabbri, to Cézanne’s works, which at that time could only be found at the dealer’s gallery. From Vollard, Fabbri acquired Boy in a Red Waistcoat. Around 1904 Fabbri exchanged this canvas for another work at Vollard’s gallery. When Fabbri had a change of heart and went to reclaim Boy in a Red Waistcoat, the dealer informed him that, because Cézanne’s work had increased in value, Fabbri would have to pay a premium for it. Mary Cassatt advised the Havemeyers, New York collectors who eventually acquired about thirteen of Cézanne’s works, including Mont Sainte-Victoire and the Viaduct of the Arc River Valley. Quoted a price of 15,000 francs, the Havemeyers hesitated but soon accepted the offer, saying that it reminded them of frescoes they had admired in Pompeii. Shortly thereafter, the Havemeyers made two cash payments to Vollard which purportedly saved him from financial ruin.
The first Cézanne exhibition in 1895 marked the beginning of a relationship that would make Vollard wealthy and establish Cézanne as one of the most influential painters of the 19th century. Subsequently, the dealer held at least two more exhibitions of Cézanne’s works, acquiring his art through his son and his estate. A Modern Olympia (Le Pacha), for example, was found in the artist’s studio after his death, and was jointly purchased from Cézanne's estate by Vollard and the Bernheim brothers, who were also dealers. Vollard often bought Cézanne’s works very cheaply, which the artist never seemed to mind, perhaps because Vollard was presenting his work to a larger public. Cézanne believed absolutely in Vollard’s honesty and described the dealer as sincere and serious. About two-thirds of Cézanne’s work probably passed through Vollard.
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Artist Maurice Denis began corresponding with Vollard in 1893, the same year the dealer bought three of his pieces. Denis soon put the dealer in touch with a group of young, avant-garde artists known as the Nabis, of which Denis was a part. The Nabis (after the Arabic word for “prophet”) were a group of artists that flourished from about 1892 to 1899. Unofficial disciples of Gauguin, they followed the older artist’s belief in art as an abstract language that could express ideas and emotions through color and forms. Denis explained, “It is well to remember that a picture, before being a battle horse, a nude woman, or some anecdote, is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order.” In 1897 and again in 1898, Vollard held large exhibitions devoted to the Nabis, including works by Bonnard, Denis, and Edouard Vuillard. Curious to see what these artists would produce, Vollard commissioned work in a variety of media, including painted ceramics, sculptures, illustrated books, and color lithographic albums. These commissions for albums of color lithographs by Bonnard, Denis, and Vuillard resulted in what is arguably the highest achievement in color printmaking in the 19th century.
Early on, Bonnard was Vollard’s favorite artist of the group, and he is the only one of the Nabis whose works the dealer actively collected, even after he became associated with another dealer. Bonnard’s Seated Girl with Rabbit shows the artist’s emphasis on bold color and pattern already apparent in his commercial posters. Vollard encouraged Bonnard’s penchant for decorative art by challenging the artist to create sculpture. Surtout de Table (The Terrasse Children), a large circular centerpiece of intertwined figures, is Bonnard’s first attempt at sculpture, which Vollard had cast into bronze. It was exhibited at Vollard's gallery in 1902 and 1906. Vollard avoided producing numerous bronzes by any one artist, preferring to realize them on an "as needed" basis.
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Vuillard’s work links the Postimpressionist period of the 1890s to the renewal of decorative art around 1900. During his most intense involvement with the Nabis, Vuillard was best known for his works depicting women in middle-class interiors. Especially prevalent were scenes inspired by his mother and sister who ran a corset and dressmaking studio from their Paris apartment. In the diminutive painting The Blue Sleeve, acquired by Vollard in 1899, the artist’s sister Marie is shown holding a newspaper as she gazes blankly at the viewer. As is typical of Vuillard’s paintings from the 1890s, the composition derives from patterns suggested by the wallpaper, which echoes the pattern on the dress sleeve. Blurring the lines between portraiture and genre painting, the overall patterning subsumes the narrative so that the bent head of the seamstress in the background seems almost to merge with the wallpaper.
Though never owned by Vollard, Vuillard’s The Widow’s Visit, or The Conversation was included in the dealer’s second Nabi exhibition in 1898. Here, Vuillard has begun to move away from the flat, decorative style of the Nabis. The shadows on the wall add a sense of depth to the room, and a narrative is introduced by the figures of the artist’s mother and sister and their visitor.
Thirty years their senior, Odilon Redon was nonetheless a central figure for the Nabis. Redon met Vollard at a critical moment in his career when the artist was turning from charcoal drawingssuch as Armor, Head Wearing a Phyrigian Cap, on a Salver, and Profile of a Woman in Shadowto works in color. Some of these, such as The Beacon, were charcoal drawings, which he referred to as noirs, reworked in color pastels. In fact, Vollard may have encouraged Redon’s turn to color, as Vollard sometimes directed artists’ work (particularly in graphic media) to fit the aesthetic of the market. Redon had spent the first fifteen years of his career relocating his canvases from gallery to gallery without selling a single painting. Although Redon never signed a contract with the dealer, he found in Vollard what other dealers did not offer: a steady source of cash and a showcase for his works alongside younger artists. Vollard bought more than 100 works by Redon between 1894 and 1909, a testimony both to the dealer’s faith in the artist and to his willingness to take risks.
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Livres d'Artiste and Color Lithograph Albums
Vollard was pivotal in promoting the work of the Nabis in the late 19th century, helping to shape their careers and acting as a catalyst for their work in color lithography. Indeed, the French press noted that Vollard was one of the few dealers of paintings who also showed a serious interest in prints. In addition to singular prints, Vollard was passionate about illustrated books and his commitment to publishing them extended beyond any hope of profitability. From the beginning, he challenged entrenched notions of what an illustrated book should be. One of his most important contributions to the field may have been the merging of two genres: the print album and the deluxe illustrated book (livre d’artiste). His greatest innovation was the employment of painters rather than professional illustrators, commissioning artists like Bonnard, Denis, Georges Rouault, and others to create images for works of literature.
Denis’s On the Pale Silver Sofa is a lithograph created for an album titled Amour (Love). For Denis, Vollard was an important source of income and supporter of his graphic work. Although not as financially destitute as his friend, Denis, Bonnard also benefited from Vollard’s interest in the graphic arts. The first livre d’artiste Vollard published was Verlaine’s erotic poem Parallèlement in 1900 illustrated by Bonnard, who would later work on other illustrated books including several of the series with Père Ubu, a scatological and anarchic fictional character, originally created by Alfred Jarry, who became Vollard’s darker alter ego. Vuillard’s relationship with Vollard, however, was very different. Despite the fact that Vollard commissioned many book illustrations from Bonnard and Denis throughout their careers, Vollard’s interaction with Vuillard on graphic projects was limited to two lithographs from the Peintres-graveurs (Painters-printmakers) album and the album of twelve color lithographs published in 1899, Paysages et intérieurs (Landscapes and Interiors), which is the apogee of his graphic art and included The Two Sisters-in-Law. From the artist Ker Xavier Roussel, Vuillard’s brother-in-law, Vollard also commissioned an album of color lithographs, which was abandoned mid-project due to financial difficulties; only six of the twelve images were eventually published.
Though Vollard’s place in the careers of Redon and the Nabis was never as intense or dramatic as his involvement with Cézanne or Gauguin, his role nonetheless was crucial not only because he encouraged them personally but also because he publicly established them in the context of the best-known older and contemporary artists. For the Nabis, Vollard’s importance was that of a mentor and printmaker, as a voice of encouragement, at times, a ready source of income, and a friend.
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Unlike Cézanne and Renoir, Gauguin’s complex relationship with Vollard was full of antipathy and suspicion. Gauguin maintained that Vollard was manipulative, selfish, and calculating. They met in 1893 after the artist returned to Paris from his first stay in Tahiti. Gauguin was filled with ambition to secure his reputation through his Tahitian works, but he lacked a dealer to market them. He tried unsuccessfully to interest veteran Impressionist dealer Paul Durand-Ruel, who nonetheless allowed Gauguin to use his gallery for a one-man exhibition in 1893, but the show was not a success. Vollard, new to the art market at this time relied on the counsel of Pissarro, who denounced the exoticism of Gauguin’s Tahitian paintings. (Like Pissarro, Vollard seems to have been more interested in Gauguin’s earlier works.) In 1895, Gauguin again left for Tahiti. In desperate need of money, Gauguin sold Vollard some of his ceramics as well as canvases by Van Gogh and himself for modest sums. This incurred the artist’s enmity. Hoping to circumvent dealers like Vollard, Gauguin left his Tahitian works as well as his collection of contemporary art in the care of select friends upon his departure for Tahiti. The artist believed they could sell his work in his absence and send the funds to him. This was not only unrealistic but would also backfire, obliging Gauguin to become dependent on Vollard, the very dealer he was trying to avoid.
Gauguin painted Manao Tupapau (Spirit of the Dead Watching) during his first trip to Tahiti. Critics thought of it as a recasting of Manet’s Olympia. The painting passed through many hands before coming into Vollard’s possession, who sold it to a German collector around 1903. Gauguin was particularly proud of this painting and even included a representation of it in the right corner of his Self-Portrait with Hat. In November 1896, Vollard held an exhibition featuring Gauguin's Tahitian paintings as well as earlier paintings and sculpture. However, the artist was not impressed with the news of the 1896 exhibition. Gauguin lamented the loss of dealers like Theo Van Gogh, who knew how to place works with serious collectors. In 1898, after completing his masterpiece Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going?, Gauguin wrote to his friend Daniel de Monfreid in Paris suggesting that his most recent canvases (including this painting) be exhibited with other dealers. However, it was not to be. Gauguin was not pleased when he learned that Vollard, by default, took charge of the exhibition that opened in November 1898. At this point, Vollard had cornered the market for Gauguin’s earlier works as well as his recent paintings, which the artist felt, had been devalued. He railed against Vollard for predatory and exploitative practices. In 1900, however, through a series of circumstances, Gauguin was virtually forced to enter into a contractual agreement with Vollard, and he became the artist’s principal dealer. Both Gauguin and Vollard behaved badly toward each other, but despite this, Vollard’s interest in Gauguin stimulated the artist to new experimentation. Vollard’s financial support was also critical to sustaining the artist during his final years.
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FAUVES: HENRI MATISSE, ANDRÉ DERAIN, GEORGES ROUAULT
The term “Fauve” was coined in 1905 when a critic unfavorably linked the intensely colored works of Matisse, Derain, Georges Rouault and others to fauves, meaning “wild beasts.” Days after the close of the avant-garde exhibition, the Salon d’Automne, Vollard bought the contents of Derain’s studio. Over the next year, Vollard made significant purchases from other Fauve artists.
Vollard’s relationship with Matisse was less successful; he hosted Matisse’s first solo exhibition in 1904, at a time when the artist’s style was in transition. No works from the exhibition sold, and consequently, Vollard did not offer to make a bulk purchase from the artist. In 1906, when Matisse began attracting the attention of critics and collectors, Vollard reconsidered and managed to acquire twenty of the artist’s works. By this time, however, Matisse had aligned himself with other dealers.
Vollard encouraged artists to work in various media. Attempting to revive the art of painting on ceramic, Vollard commissioned many of the Fauve artists to decorate ceramic objects, sending them to a small pottery studio in Asnières, where works such as Matisse’s Green and White Vase with Nude Figures and Derain’s Large Plate with Bathers were produced from the artists' original designs. Also at Vollard’s instigation, Derain painted a group of canvases known as the London series, of which Big Ben is a part. This series was commissioned by Vollard around 1906.
Rouault would enjoy the longest and most satisfactory relationship with Vollard. In 1907 Vollard requested exclusive rights to produce ceramics with Rouault. The artist turned down the offer but, just before World War I, agreed to sell Vollard 770 paintings, watercolors, and studies, provided that the artist was allowed to finish them. Vollard never wavered in his belief in Rouault’s genius, but the dealer was often criticized for not exhibiting his recent work. Some of the blame lay with the artist himself; a perfectionist, he often refused to exhibit a piece until it was finished, a process that could take decades. Like many of his works, The Dwarf originated as a work on paper. Often when he liked a composition, Rouault would adhere the paper to canvas and paint over it.
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EDGAR DEGAS AND PIERRE-AUGUSTE RENOIR
In 1894 both Degas and Renoir attended Vollard’s first public exhibition, where they purchased minor works by Manet. Throughout the 1890s, Degas traded pastels and drawings to Vollard in exchange for pieces by Cézanne, Gauguin, Manet, and others. Following Degas’s death in 1917, Vollard bought heavily at the estate sales, where he was particularly attracted to Degas’s late paintings and pastels. The Coiffure was purchased in 1918 for 19,000 francs by the dealer Jos Hessel, possibly in shares with Vollard, at the first posthumous auction of Degas’s studio. It belongs to a series of images of women combing their hair that Degas created from the mid-1880s until the early 1900s. Vollard eventually published an album with reproductions of Degas’s works. This publication, in conjunction with his ruminations on the artist in 1924 and the poet Paul Valéry’s discourse on Degas’s art in 1938, established the public persona of a very private Degas.
Of all the Impressionists, Renoir forged the most lasting bond with Vollard. The two remained friends until the artist’s death in 1919. When they met, Renoir was at the pinnacle of his career and Vollard was at the beginning of his. Several times in 1895, the artist gave Vollard pastels or works on paper to sell. This relationship was advantageous for both Renoir and Vollard: Vollard sold works that Renoir’s main dealer, Durand-Ruel, was not interested in for minor sums. After Renoir moved to the south of France in 1908, Vollard persuaded him to take up sculpture, enlisting the help of Richard Guino, a former student of Maillol. (The dealer had exhibited Maillol’s work in 1902, including the wood original of Standing Bather, which Vollard had cast in bronze.) Auguste Rodin bought this particular cast from Vollard for 50 francs in 1904. Renoir never gave up painting, however. In 1917, the artist created Vollard as Toreador . Vollard recalled that Renoir asked him to bring back a toreador costume from Spain. Unable to find a matador costume, Vollard had one made, and Renoir ultimately asked him to pose in it. Vollard not only agreed, he even inquired whether he should shave his beard to lend the picture a more authentic air. Unlike the many portraits of himself that he sold, Vollard kept this one and displayed it prominently in his mansion.
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Like his friendship with Renoir, Vollard’s relationship with Picasso was one long-lived. It began in 1901 when the artist was nineteen. Vollard gave Picasso his first show (along with paintings by Francisco Iturrino) in Paris in 1901. Vollard did not think the exhibition was a success, but in fact many works did sell at low prices. The dealer refused, as he always did, to buy the unsold remainder. Crazy Woman with Cats is believed to have been painted in Paris, sometime between Picasso’s arrival there and the opening of Vollard’s exhibition in June.
Vollard purchased several important pieces from Picasso’s Blue and Rose periods in 1906, once American expatriate collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein began collecting the artist's works. In 1910, as Picasso’s Cubism developed into near abstraction, Vollard mounted a retrospective of his works from the previous decade, emphasizing his earlier periods. Probably included in this exhibition was the Art Institute’s The Old Guitarist. This painting, as well as La Toilette, were purchased by the American lawyer and collector John Quinn.
As Picasso’s reputation grew, Vollard continued to make regular purchases from the artist but never offered him a contract. Beginning in 1909, as Picasso sought to find a primary dealer, he painted portraits of leading candidates, such as Ambroise Vollard. Vollard called this portrait “notable” but nevertheless sold it to a Russian collector three years later. In the 1920s and 1930s, Vollard commissioned several livres d’artiste from Picasso. Through Vollard’s publications of bronzes, engravings, and illustrated books, Picasso became better known in Europe and the United States. Above all, it was the association, made possible through Vollard, of Picasso’s art with Cézanne’s that cemented Picasso’s reputation in the early 20th century.
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The outbreak of World War I in 1914 forced Vollard and almost every other dealer in Paris to close their galleries. After the war the center of the Paris art world shifted to the area near the Champs-Élysées, and Vollard chose not to maintain a working gallery and promote new art but rather to operate as a private dealer from his apartment. He channeled his energies into commissioning and publishing artist’s books.
By this time, Vollard was incredibly wealthy, and he made substantial gifts to municipal French museums. He was killed in July 1939, at the age of 73, on his way to Paris when his chauffer-driven car skidded off the road. Vollard died without direct heirs. Much of the art was left to extended family and close friends, although a significant number of works apparently were sold, dispersed, or disappeared during the war.
Like any larger-than-life figure, the myth of Ambroise Vollard does not always match the historical facts. Certainly, he had his limitations: he failed to appreciate the full potential of Matisse and Picasso, and ignored some of the major movements of his time, like Cubism and Surrealism. Yet he genuinely loved art and was personally involved with the artists he represented, displaying courage and persistence on the behalf of many of the greatest artists of modern times.
The information included here comes largely from Ann Dumas’s essay “Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde.” Additional references were provided by the object entries in the exhibition catalogue Cézanne to Picasso: Ambroise Vollard, Patron of the Avant-Garde as well as exhibition wall texts generously provided by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
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