suck up or take in, as a sponge
substance containing hydrogren that breaks up in water; the state quality of being acidic
acid rain (n)
rain with increased acidity caused by environmental pollution
acidic solution (n)
solution containing hydrogen ions that bonds with H2O molecules to create the hydronium ions, H3O; a solution with a pH less than 7
additive mixing (n)
occurs when beams of light are added together. The three additive primary colors are red, green, and blue. All other colors of light on the visible spectrum can be created by combinations of the three primaries. The combination of all three primaries in the right proportion creates white light.
bring or move forward
visual sensation that occurs after the original, external visual stimulus has been removed
mixture of mineral materials, such as sand, gravel, stone, or slag, used to make concrete, mortar, or plaster
German artist and teacher (1888Ñ1976) who immigrated to the U.S. to teach at the newly formed Black Mountain College after the Bauhaus German art school closed in 1933; best known for his abstract geometric painting and collages
basic (as opposed to acidic), especially of a solution. Examples of alkaline earth metals are calcium, strontium, and sodium. These substances produce hydroxide ions (OH-) when dissolved in water and have a pH of more than 7.
building in an oval or circular shape with rows of seats arranged around an open circular space; originated in ancient Rome for contests and spectacles
relating to analysis; breaking something into simpler parts for examination
mathematically-calculated distorted representation of an image on a plane or curved surface; when viewed from a certain point or reflected in a curved mirror the image appears to be in perspective and proportion
structure of a plant or animal, or of any of its parts
in Western culture, relating to the period of the Greeks and Romans approximately between 1200 B.C. and A.D. 400
fine-grained, usually dark-grayish, volcanic rock that occurs mainly in surface deposits
ancient times, or an object from the ancient period
armillary sphere (n)
three-dimensional model consisting of six or more moveable rings and a sighting device; used for centuries by astronomers to determine the location of objects in the sky using a celestial coordinate system
defensive covering for the body made of metal; used in battle during the medieval and Renaissance time periods
Art Deco (n)
design movement from the mid-1920s through World War II (1939-1945) characterized by geometric, streamlined shapes and the use of industrially produced materials. Art Deco was named after the International Exposition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts, held in Paris in 1925.
object created by a human hand most often dating from an ancient or prehistoric period
craftsman; one who performs a skilled craft
device used to show how the sky looks at a specific place and time. It is also used for solving problems relating to the time and position of the sun and stars.
person who travels beyond the earth's atmosphere. Technically, it is any crew member aboard an American spacecraft of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (Cosmonauts are crew members of Russian spacecrafts.)
scientist who studies the physical and chemical properties of celestial bodies, such as their position, distribution, motion, composition, energy, and/or evolution
study of the physical and chemical properties of celestial bodies, such as their position, distribution, motion, composition, energy, and/or evolution; relating to the field of astronomy
atmospheric perspective (n)
sometimes called ariel perspective; nonlinear perspective that creates the illusion of distance through color, clarity, and apparent relief of forms. In this method of painting or drawing, forms become less clear and take on an increased bluish hue as they recede in distance.
assign authorship of a painting to a particular person
prove the authenticity of a work of art
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in art, part of a painting or drawing representing the space behind figures or objects that are close to the viewer (in the foreground)
hard, dense, and dark-gray or black volcanic (igneous) rock rock a glassy appearance. Minerals usually found in basalt include olivine, pyroxene, and plagioclase.
optical property of certain materials that causes light to polarize, travel at different speeds, and refract
blackbody radiator (n)
hypothetically, a perfect light radiator that absorbs and does not reflect all incident-radiant energy, with light output depending only on its temperature
optical device, such as a prism or optical fiber, used to observe inaccessible spaces (for example, an engine cylinder)
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silver-white metallic element of the alkaline earth group
science of making maps and geographical charts
relating to the sky or the heavens
celestial sphere (n)
imaginary sphere with an infinite radius and the earth at its center, in which the stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies are located. The point on the sphere directly overhead is called the zenith. The imaginary circle passing through the north and south points on the horizon (and through the zenith) is called the celestial meridian.
machine that uses centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities
relating to the teachings of Christ
technique used to separate complex mixtures. A mixture is carried by a liquid or gas and separated by its components differential affinities to the medium, such as paper or gelatin, through which they pass.
element, discovered in 1797, used in pigments such as lead chromate and zinc potassium chromate. It is chiefly responsible for a range of brilliant yellows and oranges. Because chromates are unstable, pigments that contain this element have darkened and faded over time.
relating to ancient Greek or Roman art, architecture, or literature from the period between 1200 B.C. and A.D. 400; commonly identified by rationality, stability, and balance of forms
capable of perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, reasoning, and judging external reality. Impressionist artwork, such as that by Claude Monet, is often considered precognitive because it attempts to capture the immediate effects of nature, before the human brain has a chance to distinguish, recognize, and judge different elements.
cognitive science (n)
interdisciplinary science that draws on many fieldsincluding psychology, linguistics, and philosophyto develop theories about human perception, thinking, and learning
artistic composition made through the assembly of various materials, frequently glued on a surface
color wheel (n)
circular diagram of the color spectrum used to show the relationship between colors
work of art made through the funding or authority of a patron; to pay an artist or craftsman to create a work of art
complementary color (n)
the contrasting color of another color, found opposite it on the color wheel (i.e. red/green, yellow/purple, orange/blue). When combined the two produce a neutral color.
in art, arrangement of elements, such as shape, space, and color, in a work of art
something formed by the union of parts; in chemistry, a substance formed by the union of elements
curved inward, like the inner surface of a sphere
having a common center or axis, such as circles within circles
building material made of a mixture of cement, sand or gravel, and water, which then hardens when dry, becoming strong and durable
in anatomy, microscopic cell in retina of the eye that, with rods, responds to light
science of preserving and maintaining works of art; person responsible for the preservation and restoration of a work of art
any of 88 arbitrary star patterns or arrangements in the night sky, named after animals, objects, and characters from Classical mythology
conditions or environment in which something occurs
dependent upon something else
mathematician and astronomer born in 1473 in Poland. He is best known for his theory of the heliocentric universe. This is sometimes called the Copernican theory, which was published in full in De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres) in 1543.
process of weakening or wearing away gradually by chemical reaction
universe, defined as an orderly, harmonious whole; a theory that accounts for the natural order of the universe, such as the placement and movements of stars and planets
a shape with a convex and concave edge; the moon at any stage between new moon and first quarter or between last quarter and the next new moon
a view or piece of something cut through at a right angle to an axis
early20th-century art movement led by Pablo Picasso (18811973) and Georges Braque (18821963), which used abstract, fragmented shapes to depict several views of the same subject simultaneously, emphasizing the basic geometry or structure of the subject.
in a museum, one who collects, cares for, studies, and exhibits a collection of art
derived from a group of Greek islands, the Cyclades, in the southern Aegean Ocean
three-dimensional shape traced by a straight line moving parallel to a fixed straight line and intersecting a fixed planar curve
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small section of a work of art
bending of electromagnetic waves (for example, light waves) around corners; the spreading out of waves as they go through holes that are smaller than their wavelengths
digital image (n)
computer-generated or -manipulated image
field of study
distinct, separate or unconnected
in physics, spreading out or separation of electromagnetic waves due to refraction or diffraction
process of separating something into pieces for detailed examination or analysis; in science, taking apart and exposing the different parts of an animals anatomy in order to examine it
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German-born physicist best known for his theory of relativity, the foundation for modern physics theory. He won a Nobel Prize in Science for his work on the photoelectric effect. His ideas had an influence far beyond the realm of sciencefrom painting to poetry.
electromagnetic spectrum (n)
the entire range of wavelengths and frequencies. This range includes, in order of decreasing frequency and increasing wavelength, gamma rays, Xrays, ultraviolet radiation, visible light, infrared radiation, microwaves, and radio waves.
electromagnetic wave (n)
energy wave that has a frequency/wavelength within the electromagnetic spectrum
in science, any one of the more than 100 fundamental substances that consist of atoms of only one kind and that constitute all matter; in art, the design properties that constitute a work of art, such as color, value, or composition
substance discharged into air
based on observance or experience
suspension of one liquid in a second liquid with which it does not mix (example: oil and vinegar)
field of work that applies science and mathematics to the design, production, and operation of complex products, such as machines, processes, and systems
to gouge lines or dots out of a metal plate with a sharp tool called a burin. The plate is then inked and printed under pressure
to cut into the surface of a metal plate through chemical acid erosion. The plate is first covered with a thin wax layer into which an artist draws the image with a pointed implement, revealing the metal plate underneath. The plate is submerged in acid, which bites the exposed metal into troughs. After it is inked, the plate is printed under pressure.
conforming to accepted standards of conduct
the historical development of a biological group, such as humans
international movement in art and architecture that flourished between c. 1905 and c. 1920. Expressionist art seeks to convey emotion through distortions of color, shape, and space.
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movement that flourished in France among a group of young artists from 1898 to 1908. Fauvist art is characterized by pure, brilliant color, which was often applied straight from the paint tube in an aggressive, direct manner. Like the Impressionists, the Fauves painted from nature, but Fauvist works contain strong expressive feelings.
in art, the objects or figures situated in the front of a composition, intended to exist close to the viewer (as opposed to background)
fossil fuel (n)
coal, oil, or natural gas; fuel generated in the earth from plant or animal remains
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large group of stars and associated matter found in the universe
galaxy cluster (n)
group of galaxies
gas chromotography (n)
chromotography process in which a substance is vaporized and injected into a carrier gas, such as nitrogen or helium, then diffused through a medium to separate the substances components according to their differential absorption
material obtained from boiled animal tissues
category of subject matter in the fine arts (for example, landscape painting)
Gogh, Vincent van
Dutch artist (18531890) who produced more than 2,000 watercolors, drawings, sketches, and oil paintings in his brief 10-year career. His painting styles ranged from a dark realism to a colorful expressionism. He is best known for his intensely saturated images that make use of bold, complementary colors.
very hard, light-colored igneous rock formation, often used in the construction of buildings and monuments. Minerals usually found in granite are quartz, mica, orthoclase, and microcline.
in art, surface upon which a medium is applied
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reference system with the sun at the center
system of writing composed of pictorial characters
American painter of German birth (18801966). He was one of the major figures in a group of artists known as the Abstract Expressionists, and his work is a distinctive form of abstraction based on bold patches of contrasting color.
Swiss artist (14971543) best known as a portrait painter in England under King Henry VIII. One of his most famous works is The Ambassadors (1533), a double portrait of two French ambassadors, in which he includes an anamorphic image of a skull, a frequently used symbol of disharmony and death, which has been stretched so as to be discernable from one angle only.
study of a whole culture or organism rather than its parts
line formed by the meeting of the sky and the earth; in painting, the line that defines the furthest most distance of the background
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) (n)
most sophisticated optical observatory created, currently orbiting around Earth. The HST images transmitted to Earth are far brighter and clearer than any taken from Earth because the HST is not affected by Earths atmosphere, which absorbs and distorts light rays.
shade of color
possible, tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or problem. A hypothesis is often made at the beginning of a scientific investigation and serves as its focus.
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rock produced by intense heat or volcanic action
progressive art movement that originated in France in the late-19th century. Impressionist painters wanted to capture the rapidly changing modern world and the fleeting moods of nature. Impressionism relied on optical blending of colors and brushstrokes to depict the fluctuations of light and consisted largely of views of everyday middle-class life in the city and countryside of France.
blue pigment. Organic indigo was originally derived from various plants and imported from India. In 1897 chemists developed synthetic indigo, which quickly replaced the more expensive, organic pigment.
form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths longer than visible light. Located just beyond red in the electromagnetic spectrum, infrared waves are generated by objects that produce heat, such as human beings or incandescent light.
infrared reflectography (n)
technique using infrared radiation to penetrate a body's surface; used in art to reveal any underdrawings in a painting
infrared spectrometry (n)
measurement of a substances presence using its characteristic absorption of (or sensitivity to) wavelengths from the infrared spectrum
infrared spectroscopy (n)
analysis and study of a substances presence using its characteristic absorption of (or sensitivity to) wavelengths from the infrared spectrum
in art, work of art produced for a specific location, often made out of a temporary assemblage of materials
space between two objects or points; the amount of time between two specific events
ionÐexchange matrix (n)
chemical reaction during which ions are interchanged and lined up
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man of noble birth and member of the kings core army, who provided military protection to the king and his feudal lords during the medieval period.
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lapis lazuli (n)
semiprecious, opaque stone, usually a rich, azure blue with flecks of yellow iron pyrite. Minerals usually found in lapis lazuli are lazurite and calcite. The stone is most commonly found in the region now known as Afghanistan. It was the most highly prized and expensive pigmenteven more so than gold and because of this it was often reserved for the representation of extremely important figures, such as the Virgin Mary in Christian paintings.
image representing natural scenery, usually from a distant viewpoint
angular distance north or south of the earths equator, measured in degrees along a meridian
lead chromate (n)
crystalline compound (PbCrO4 ) that is yellow in color and used as a paint pigment to form colors such as chrome yellow
made of lines or making use of lines
live link (n)
active visual or audio link between two remote locations through digital technology
in art, color natural to a particular object or to a particular area of a work of art independent of its general color scheme
angular distance measured on circles of reference (meridians) around the earth east or west of the prime meridian (0° longitude), usually measured in degrees
luminous intensity (n)
quantity of light emitted from a source in any one second. The unit of luminous intensity is called the standard candle, or candela.
lunar eclipse (n)
obscuration of the suns light from the moon caused by the position of the earth. A lunar eclipse can only occur when the earth is between the sun and the moon, which is also when the moon is in its full phase.
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type of limestone capable of taking on a high polish, often used in architecture and sculpture
Mesoamerican Indians who lived in southern Mexico, Guatemala, northern Belize, Honduras, or El Salvador and developed one of the greatest civilizations of the western hemisphere between 250 B.C. to A.D. 900. The Maya are renowned for their innovative methods of agriculture, monumental stone buildings and pyramid temples, gold and copper works, and system of hieroglyphic writing. The Maya also developed highly sophisticated calendars and astronomical systems; relating to the Maya civilization
round or oval panel bearing a portrait or ornamental decoration in relief
of or in the style of the Middle Ages (period in European history between antiquity and the Renaissance, about A.D. 500 to around 1500)
medium (n), pl. media
in art, the material from which a work of art is made; in science, a substance that provides a means of transmission
instrument used to visually enlarge images of very small objects so that they are more clearly visible to the human eye. Common microscopes are made of a combination of lenses, but there are also more powerful microscopes that scan objects with electrons, X rays, or types of radiation other than visible light.
study and/or use of microscopes
city in northern Italy
the assignment of incorrect artistic authorship to a work of art
smallest particle into which a substance can be divided. A molecule of an element consists of one or more atoms.
French painter (18401926) and one of the leaders of the Impressionist group. Monet often painted his subjects more than once, at different times of day, during different seasons, or under varying light conditions, demonstrating the Impressionist emphasis on outdoor light and atmosphere.
consisting of only one hue of color
based on principles of right conduct rather than accepted law or custom
branch of biology that deals only with the form and structure of an organism and not with function
in a work of art, principle idea or subject
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extremely small tube or tubular structure. Its scale is 10-9.
study of the nervous system, such as its anatomy, physiology, and/or pathology
conducting cell in brain, spinal cord, and nerves
in science, neither acid or alkaline; having a pH of 7
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in art, to make into an object
blocking the passage of light
optic nerve (n)
nerve that connects the eye to the brain
optical telescope (n)
instrument that uses lenses or mirrors to view distant objects
chemical compound related to phosphoric acid in which the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic combining groups, such as ethyl and phenyl
to combine with oxygen and increase an atoms, ions, or molecules positive charge by the removal of electrons
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having to do with country life
surface appearance on an object formed by long exposure to air, acid, or human touch
aware of something through any of the five senses; the interpretation and comprehension of physical impressions by ones experience
at right angles
scientific method used by artists to represent three-dimensional objects on two-dimensional surfaces. Linear perspective uses vanishing points and orthogonals to make objects seem as if they are receding in space. Some maintain that a crude form of linear perspective was introduced by the Romans, refined by Islamic artists in the Middle Ages, and rediscovered by Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi in the 15th century.
symbol used to express the acidity or alkalinity of a substance or solution; scale ranges from 0 to 14
phenomenon/phenomenal (n/adj) pl. phenomena
fact or event of scientific interest susceptible to scientific description and explanation; a rare or significant fact or event; concerned, related or constituting phenomena; known or observed through the senses rather than through the mind
unit of light
kind of physical features or type of face one has
part of biology dealing with the physical and chemical functions of living organisms organs, tissues, and cells; characteristic of the normal functioning of a living organism
pure colors in powder form. Pigments are suspended in a binding material to form paint.
theory and technique of applying small strokes or dots of color to a surface so that from a distance they blend together; also called Neo-Impressionism
to give something preferential orientation; for example, the preferential orientation of light waves
polarized-light microscope (n)
instrument that uses light vibrating in one direction (polarized light) to display the properties of materials under analysis, such as pigments
Polaroid (trademark) (n)
specially treated, transparent plastic able to polarize the light passing through it . It is used in glasses and lamps to prevent glare and in cameras to develop pictures instantly.
midÑ20th-century artist (1912Ñ1956) who created a body of work that helped change the course of Modern art. Pollock emphasized the expressive power of the artists gestures, materials, and tools, often pouring paint on the canvas or applying it with sticks, trowels, or palette knives instead of brushes. This process led to the term "action painting".
closed, plane figure consisting of three or more angles and sides or line segments; relating to a polygon
French artistic movement that followed Impressionism. The artists involved, including Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin, pushed beyond the Impressionist emphasis on the appearance of nature, stressing instead qualities such as emotional expression and the formal structure of underlying objects. The Post-Impressionists introduced a variety of bold new styles and demonstrated innovative uses of color and brushwork that sometimes bordered on abstraction.
moisture in the air in the form of rain, snow, or hail
preceding the time of the arrival of Christopher Columbus to the Americas
primary color (n)
fundamental pigment that cannot be created through combination. Primary colors in art are red, yellow, and blue.
like a prism, a transparent solid that separates white light passing through it into its component parts; like the colored light of the visible spectrum
complex compound containing nitrogen that is a necessary part of organic life
origin; the history of ownership of a work of art since its creation
relating to the function of the mind
field of science dealing with the study of the mental and behavioral processes characteristic of a person or group of people
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emission and propagation of energy in the form of particles, rays, or waves
raking light (n)
light placed at an angle to an object in order to make its surface texture more visible
Raman spectroscopy (n)
spectroscopic technique that uses the spectrum of a substance derived from the Raman effect (change in frequency and random alteration in phase of light as it passes through a transparent medium) to determine and analyze the properties of a substance
iron rod used in construction with concrete to provide underlying support and stability
red ochre (n)
red pigment derived from a mixture of iron and clay
light reflecting off the surface of a ground and into a camera lens. Reflectography is often used with infrared light, which allows greater penetration of paint layers and provides a clearer image of underlying paint layers and drawing.
to bend electromagnetic (example: light) waves as they move between media with different refractive indices, such as air and water
in art, piece of sculpture that features a molded, carved, or stamped design that stands out three-dimensionally from a background surface
from the French word meaning rebirth. An era in 15th- and 16th-century Europe that saw the revival of learning, literature, art, and architecture, which emphasized and often imitated Classical examples from Greece and Rome
membrane at the back of the eye composed of nervous tissue that receives images of things viewed
decorative style of art and architecture that originated in France in the early 18th century, characterized by ornate, asymmetrical motifs, often including scrolls or foliage
in anatomy, microscopic sensory organ in the retina of the eye that is sensitive to dim light
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in art, the measure of a particular colors dilution with white
second largest planet in the solar system, sixth in distance from the sun
scanning electron microscope (n)
microscope that moves a beam of focused electrons across an object to form a three-dimensional image on a cathode-ray tube
secondary color (n)
any color made from the mixture of two primary colors
sodium nitrate (n)
white, crystalline salt (NaNO3). It used to create explosives, glass, pottery enamel, fertilizer, and rocket propellants and as an oxidizing agent in the curing of meat.
measurement of electromagnetic radiation through the production and investigation of its spectrum
the study of electromagnetic radiation through the production and investigation of its spectrum
in physics, band of colors ranging from red to violet, formed when a beam of white light passes through a prism; a three-dimensional polygon that separates light into its component parts
spiral galaxy (n)
galaxy with spiral arms. The Milky Way galaxy is presumed to be this shape.
stained glass (n)
pieces of colored glass fitted into a lead lattice to form a picture or design
carved or inscribed pillar of stone used for commemorative purposes
still life (n)
depiction of an inanimate object or objects, such as flowers or fruit, usually arranged by an artist
construction in England dating to c. 2750Ñ1500 B.C. in the Neolithic period (New Stone Age) consisting of concentric circles of large stone slabs (megaliths), which relates to the cycle of the sun
foundation layer; basis
subtractive mixing (n)
absorption and selective reflection of light; occurs when pigments or dyes are mixed. The three subtractive primary colors are yellow, cyan, and magenta.
star that becomes incredibly bright due to an explosion and then fades to its normal brightness over a period of several days
movement introduced by a group of writers and artists in Paris in 1924 that embraced the act of spontaneous, often dreamlike, creation. Many Surrealists produced fantastic, meticulously rendered objects, while others combined ordinary objects in strange and startling ways.
something that stands for or represents something else; a visible sign of an abstract trait or idea (such as a nations flag)
produced through a process of chemical synthesis rather than nature
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tele- (combining form)
when used as a prefix, it means "at or over a distance". In combination with words such as robot, presence, or port, tele refers to distance created by remote control, computer network, or digital imaging.
instrument for viewing distant objects, usually tubular in shape with an arrangement of mirrors or lenses inside. A telescope may detect and observe distant objects through their emission, transmission, reflection, or other interaction with radiation.
type of paint in which pigments are suspended in egg yolk rather than oil
statement or principle explaining a phenomenon that is plausible, scientifically acceptable, and has been repeatedly tested and/or widely accepted
theory of relativity (n)
theory, proposed by Albert Einstein, based on the principle that the laws of physics and the speed of light are constant in all frames of reference. As a part of this theory, Einstein showed that mass and energy are equivalent, as expressed in the equation e = mc2.
metallic chemical element used in the making of steel and alloys
transfer of cloned genetic material from one species to another
permitting the passage of light
to pass through or conduct
heavy metallic chemical used in the making of steel and for electric-lamp filaments
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ultramarine blue (n)
deep-blue pigment originally made from ground lapis lazuli, now created synthetically
type of light or radiation that falls between violet (380 nanometers or 380 x 10-9 meters) and Xray (4 nanometers or 4 x 10-9 meters) on the electromagnetic spectrum
ultraviolet fluorescence (n)
emission of ultraviolet radiation
light that vibrates in all directions
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marked by streaks, marks, or patches of different colors
bright red pigment derived from mercuric sulfide
Vinci, Leonardo da
Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, and designer (14521519); known best for his portrait Mona Lisa, and revered as one of the most innovative and creative artist/inventors in the history of western civilization.
computer-generated object or environment that simulates reality
visual cortex (n)
area of the occipital lobe of the brains cerebral cortex that has to do with vision
visible spectrum (n)
on the electromagnetic spectrum, wavelengths of visible light between ultraviolet and infrared, which produce continuous hues of color from red to violet
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watch fob (n)
a short strap or ribbon attached to a pocket watch
distance between one peak of a wave of light, heat, or other type of energy and the next corresponding peak
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X radiography (n)
process of producing an image using a radiosensitive surface and X rays passed through an object
X-ray diffraction (n)
the scattering of X rays using crystal atoms to produce an interference/diffraction pattern. This gives information about the structure of the crystal or the identity of a crystalline substance.
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in astronomy, a band of the celestial sphere that extends eight degrees to either side of the apparent elliptical path of the planets, moon, and sun. In astrology, the aforementioned band is divided into 12 equal parts, each of which is recognized by a sign (such as Aquarius or Capricorn) bearing the name of a constellation.
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