Jacques Louis David
French, 1748–1825

Madame de Pastoret and Her Son, mid-1791/mid-1792

Oil on canvas
129.8 x 96.6 cm (51 1/8 x 38 in.)
Clyde M. Carr Fund and Major Acquisitions Endowment, 1967.228

Madame de Pastoret and Her Son

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The volatile events leading to the French Revolution make the date of Jacques-Louis David’s warm, fresh portrait of Adélaïde de Pastoret impossible to determine with certainty. They also probably account for the portrait’s unfinished state. David, a renowned Neoclassical painter, was at the time an ardent revolutionary; Madame de Pastoret was the wife of a staunch royalist. The sittings must have occurred after the birth, early in 1791, of her son, who is portrayed asleep by her side, and before her brief imprisonment during the Reign of Terror in 1792. Here David completed the stippled, almost monochromatic underpainting but did not create the stark, enamel-smooth surface that is characteristic of his finished paintings. He did not even get far enough to place a needle and thread in Madame de Pastoret’s hand. Nevertheless, this large portrait of unaffected domesticity captures the youthful mother with charm as well as dignity and displays David’s skill as a portraitist. Objecting to David’s revolutionary ideals, Madame de Pastoret (who became the marquise de Pastoret in 1817) refused the painting during the artist’s lifetime. After David’s death, she had her son, by then an adult, purchase the portrait from the artist’s estate.

— Entry, Essential Guide, 2013, p. 218.

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Paris, Palais du Domaine de Bagatelle, Exposition rétrospective de portraits de femmes sous les trios républiques, 1990, no. 48.

Palais des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris (Petit Palais), David et ses élèves, 1913, no. 39.

Amsterdam, Rijksmuseum, Exposition rétrospective d’art français, 1926, no. 35.

Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, De David à Delacroix: La Peinture française de 1774 à 1830, 1974–1975, no. 34; traveled to Detroit and New York.

Art Institute of Chicago, Selected Works of the Eighteenth-Century French Art in the Collections of The Art Institute of Chicago, 1976, no. 17.

Art Institute of Chicago, European Portraits, 1600–1900, in The Art Institute of Chicago, 1978, no. 12.

Paris, Musée du Louvre, and Versailles, Musée National du Château, Jacques-Louis David, 1748–1825, 1989–90, no. 116.

Chicago, Art Institute, New Light on Old Masters: French and British Paintings from 1700 to 1800,” 1996–1997, no cat.

Publication History

A. Mahul, Annuaire nécrologique, ou complément annuel et continuation de toutes les biographies, ou dictionnaires historiques…., année 1825, Paris, December 1826, p. 141.

P[ierre] A[lexander] Coupin, Essai sur J. L. David, peintre d’histoire, ancien member de l’Institut, officier de la Légion-d’Honneur, Paris, 1827, p. 55.

Alexander Lenoir, “David: Souvenirs historiques,” Journal de l’Institut historique 3 (November 1835), p. 9.

Jean du Seigneur, “Appendice à la notice de P. Chaussard sur L. David (1),” Revue universelle des arts 18 (1864), p. 367.

Charles Blanc, Histoire des peintres de toutes les écoles, pt. 3, Ecole française, vol. 2, Paris, 1865, David p. 15.

J. L. Jules David, Le Peintre Louis David, 1748–1825: Souvenirs et documents inédits, Paris, 1880, p. 644.

Château de Moreuil Collections, Abbeville, 1884, pp. 169–70, no. 223.

Spire Blondel, L’Art pendant la revolutions: Beaux-Arts, arts décoratifs, Paris, [1887], p. 55.

Emile Delignières, Notice sur des tableaux de Louis David et d’Ingres au Château de Moreuil en Picardie, Paris, 1890, pp. 7–9, ill. opp. p. 7; also published in Réunion des Sociétés des Beaux-Arts des départments 14 (1890), pp. 491–93, pl. XIX.

“La Chronique des arts et de la curiosité,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 3d ser., 17 (1897), suppl. no. 20, p. 186.

Charles Saunier, “La ´Mort de Sénèque’ par Louis David,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 3d ser., 33 (1905), p. 236.

Louis Vauxcelles, “La Collection Chéramy,” L’Art et les artistes 1 (1905), ill. opp. p. 124.

Prosper Dorbec, “David portraitiste, “Gazette des Beaux-Arts 3d ser., 37 (1907), pp. 314, 327 (ill.), 329.

Louis Rouart, “ La Collection de M. Chéramy,” Les Arts 6 (April 1907), p. 17 (cover ill.).

Gilbert Stenger, La Société française pendant le consulat, 5th ser., Les Beaux-Arts–La Gastronomie, Paris, 1907, pp. 88, 103.

American Art News 6, 31 (1908), p. 7.

“La Chronique des arts et de la curiosité,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 3d ser., 39 (1908), suppl. no. 19, p. 187.

J[ulius] Meier-Graefe and E[rich] Klossowski, La Collection Chéramy: Catalogue raisonné précédé d’études sur les maîtres principaux de la collection, Munich, 1908, p. 70, no. 75 (ill.).

“Sales–Art in France,” Burlington Magazine 13 (1908), p. 180.

Léon Rosenthal, “Exposition de portraits de femmes à Bagatelle,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 4th ser., 2 (1909), p. 52.

Baron Roger Portalis, Henry-Pierre Danloux: Peintre de portraits, et son journal durant l’émigration (1753–1809), Paris, 1910, p. 24.

Gustav Pauli, “David im Petit Palais,” Kunst und Künstler 11 (1913), pp. 542 (ill.), 564.

Léon Rosenthal, “L’Exposition de David et ses élèves au Petit Palais,” La Revue de l’art ancien et moderne 33 (1913), p. 342.

Charles Saunier, “David et son école au Palais des Beaux-Arts de la Ville de Paris (Petit Palais),” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 4th ser., 9 (1913), pp. 274, 277.

Robert de la Sizeranne, “A L’exposition David: L’Instinct et l’intelligence chez l’artiste,” Revue des deux mondes 15 (1913), pp. 9-91.

Louis Réau in Histoire de l’art depuis les premiers temps chrétiens jusqu´à nos jours, vol 8, Paris, 1925, pt. 1, p. 92.

Richard Cantinelli, Jacques-Louis David, 1748–1825, Paris and Brussels, 1930, p. 118, no. 193, pl. LVI.

Kaus Holma, David: Son Evolution et son style, Paris, 1940, pp. 65, 130, no. 206.

Jorge Romero Brest, Jacques Louis David, Buenos Aires, 1943, p. 20.

Jacques Maret, David, Monaco, 1943, p. 118, pl. 71.

Louis Hautecoeur, L’Art sous la révolition et l’empire en France, 1789–1815, Paris, 1953, p. 84.

Louis Hautecoeur, Louis David, Paris, 1954, pp. 105–106, 107, 187, 281.

“La Chronique des arts,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 6th ser., 70 (1967), suppl. to no. 1187, p. 4, fig. 4.

John Maxon, “J. L. David’s Portraits of the Marquise de Pastoret,” Art News 66, 7 (1967), pp. 44–46 (ill.).

“Accession of American and Canadian Museums, July–September, 1967,” Art Quarterly 31 (1968), p. 94, 101 (ill.).

“La Chronique des arts,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 6th ser., 71 (1968), suppl. to no. 1189, fig. 266.

John Maxon, “A David Portrait for Chicago,” Apollo 87 (1968), p. 65, fig. 1.

Fernande Bassan, Politique et haute société à l’époque romantique: La Famille Pastoret d’après sa correspondance (1788 à 1856), Paris, 1969, p. 22, pl. IVb.

Pierre Angrand and Hans Naef, “Ingres et la famille de Pastoret, correspondance inedite,” pt. 1, Bulletin du Musée Ingres 27 (July 1970), pp. 9–11 (ill.).

John Maxon, The Art Institute of Chicago, London, 1977, pp. 65–66 (ill.).

J[ohn] M[axon], “Mrs. Morton’s Bequest,” Art Institute of Chicago Calendar 64, 1 (1970), n. pag.

C[harles] C. C[unningham], “Ingres Portrait of Marquis de Pastoret,” Art Institute of Chicago Calendar 66, 3 (1972), p. 4 (ill.).

Michel Laclotte and Arlette Sérullaz in The Age of New-Classicism, exh. cat., London, Royal Academy of Arts and Victoria and Albert Museum, 1972, pp. LXX and 44, under no. 66.

René Verbraeken, Jacques-Louis David jugé par ses contemporains et par la postérité, Paris, 1973, pp. 102, 248, fig. 47.

Daniel Wildenstein and Guy Wildenstein, Documents complémentaires au catalogue de l’oeuvre de Louis David, Paris 1973, p. 238, no. 2042 (80), 244, no. 2062 (16), 274, no. 2420.

Pierre Rosenberg, “De David à Delacroix: La Peinture française de 1774 à 1830,” La Revue du Louvre 24 (1974), p. 443.

Jean Cailleux, “La Grande Peinture de 1774 à 1830: Le Portrait,” Art et curiosité 55 (January--Febuary 1975), p. 22, fig. 14.

Charles McCorquodale, “From David to Delacroix,” Art International 19, 6 (1975), p. 26.

Arlette Calvet-Sérullaz, “David,” Le Lacrousse des grands peintres, Paris, 1976, p. 89.

The Art Institute of Chicago, 100 Masterpieces, Chicago, 1978, pl. 35.

Antoine Schnapper, “David revisité,” Commentaire 1 (1978), pp. 387–98.

John D. Morse, Old Masters Paintings in North America, New York, 1979, p. 96.

Anita Brookner Jacques-Louis David, London, 1980, pp. 100, 105,109,144,169, fig. 57.

Antoine Schnapper, David: Témoin de son temps, Fribourg, 1980, pp. 127–28, 151, fig. 71.

Régis Michel in David et Rome, exh. cat., Académie de France à Rome, 1981–82, p. 175.

Matthias Bleyl , Das Klassizistische Porträt: Gestaltungsanalyse am Beispiel J.-L. Davids, Frankfurt am Main and Bern, 1982, pp. 131–34, no. 2, figs. 20–22.

Philippe Bordes, Le Serment du Jeu de Paume de Jacques-Louis David: Le Peintre, son milieu et son temps de 1789 à 1792, Paris, 1983, pp. 23, 96 n. 52.

Michael Wilson, “A New Acquisition for the National Gallery: David’s Portrait of Jacobus Blauw,” Burlington Magazine 126 (1984), p. 698.

Anthony M. Clark, Pompeo Batoni: A Complete Catalogue of His Works with an Introductory Text, ed. by Edgar Peter Bowron, Oxford, 1985, p. 363, under no. 456.

Luc de Nanteuil, Jacques-Louis David, New York, 1985, pp. 25, 56, 108, pl. 19.

Antoine Schnapper in 1770–1830: Autour du nó-classicisme en Belgique, exh. cat., Musée Communal des Beaux-Arts d’Ixelles, 1985–86, p. 33.

Lorenz Eitner, An Outline of 19th-Century European Paintings: From David through Cézanne, vol. 1, New York, 1987, p. 23.

John Leighton in Jacques-Louis David: Portrait of Jacobus Blauw, exh. cat., London, The National Gallery, 1987, pp. 9, 11.

Jean Jacques Lévêque, L’Art et la révolution française:1789–1804, Neuchâtel, 1987, p. 184 (ill.).

Jérémie Benoit, “Temps historique et temps artistique durant la révolution,” in Les Images de la révolution française, ed. by Michel Vovelle, Actes du Colloque des 25–26–27 October 1985, Paris, 1988, p. 83.

Régis Michel and Marie Catherine Sahut, David; L’Art et le politique, Paris, 1988, pp. 76 (ill.), 113.

Aileen Ribeiro, Fashion in the French Revolution, London, 1988, fig. 45.

Germain Bazin, “Eloge de David,” L’Oeil no. 411 (1989), fig 7.

Alain Jouffroy, Aimer David, Paris, 1989, pp. 104–05.

Jean Jacques Lévêque, La Vie et l’oeuvre de Jacques-Louis David, Paris, 1989, pp. 66–67 (ill.), 86.

David Wisner, “Les Portraits de femmes de J. L. David pendant la révolution française,” Les Femmes et La Révolution Française, Actes du Colloque International 12-13-14 April 1989, Université de Toulouse-Le Miraïl. Toulouse, 1989, vol. 2, pp. 178 (ill.).

John McEwen, “Paint and Politics,” Country Life 183, 47 (1989), pp. 66, 68.

Bernard Noël, L. David, New York, 1989, pp. 42 (ill.), 44, 93.

Warren Roberts, Jacques-Louis David, Revolutionary Artist: Art, Politics, and the French Revolution, Chapel Hill and London, 1989, pp. 57–58, fig. 23.

Antoine Schnapper in David, special issue of Connaissance des arts (1989), p. 22, fig. 15.

Antoine Schnapper and Arlette Sérullaz, “Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825),” La Revue du Louvre 39 (1989), p. 210.

James Henry Rubin, “Jacques-Louis David et la main du peuple: Saisir le site de la répresentation,” in David contre David, Actes du colloque organisé au musée du Louvre par le service culturel du 6 au 10 décembre 1989, Paris, 1993, p. 788.

Colin Bailey, “David in Paris–Classicism’s Most Compelling Defender,” Art International 11 (summer 1990), p. 98 (ill.).

José Augusto França, “David,” Colóquio 85 (June 1990), p. 42.

Denis Milhau, “Discours d’histoire, discours d’actualité: Quelques remarques à propos de David et de la modernité,” Bulletin du Musée Ingres 61–62 [1990], p. 99.

Robert Rosenblum, “Reconstructing David,” Art in America 78 (May 1990), pp. 190–91 (ill.).

Zbigniew Herbert, “Jacques-Louis David: Mord und Schönheit,” Pan (December 1991), p. 51 (ill.).

Claude Yvel, Le métier retrouvé des maîtres: La peinture à l’huile, Paris, 1991, p. 131, fig. 78.

Christopher Wright, The World’s Master Painting from the Early Renaissance to the Present Day: A Comprehensive Listing of Works by 1,300 Painters and a Complete Guide to Their Locations Worldwide, New York, 1991, vol. 1, p. 437, vol. 2, pp. 62, 639.

The Art Institute of Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago: The Essential Guide, Chicago, 1993, p. 142 (ill.).

Susan Wise in Susan Wise and Malcolm Warner, French and British Paintings from 1600 to 1800 in The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 1996, pp. 40-44, ill.

Ronald L. Hurst and Jonathan Prown, Southern Furniture 1680-1830. The Colonial Williamsburg Collection, Williamsburg, Virginia, 1997, p. 56, under no. 2, fig. 2.1.

Gary Tinterow and Philip Conisbee, Portraits by Ingres: Image of an epoch, exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1999, p. 295, fig. 175.

Simon Lee, David, London, 1999, pp. 146-7, fig. 94.

Warren Roberts, Jacques-Louis David and Jean-Louis Prieur, Revolutionary Artists: The Public, the Populace ,and Images of the French Revolution, Albany, N.Y., 2000, pp. 317-18, fig. 113.

Christie’s, London, Important Old Master Pictures, July 11, 2001, p. 156, under lot 63.

V[incent] P[omarede] in Ingres 1780–1867, exh. cat., Paris, Musée du Louvre, 2006, p. 269, fig. 190.

Amy Freund, "Women and Portraiture During the French Revolution," The Art Bulletin 93, 3 (September 2011), p. 327, (ill.), p. 328, 333.

Ownership History

In the artist’s possession until his death in 1825; inventoried on February 27, 1826, at the apartment of his son Eugène, rue Cadet no. 11, Paris; sold in David’s atelier sale, rue du Gros-Chenet no. 4, Paris, April 17, 1826, no. 16, for Fr 400, to Révile, acting on behalf of Emmanuel de Pastoret [price and buyer recorded in David 1880 and the 1897 sale catalogue]. Claude Emmanuel Joseph Pierre, marquis de Pastoret (died 1840), Château de Fleury-Meudon, Seine-et-Oise; by descent to his granddaughter, Marie de Pastoret (died 1890), who in 1835 married Hervé de Rougé, marquis du Plessis-Bellière; sold Hôtel Drouot, Paris, May 10–11, 1897, no. 21, for Fr 17,900, to Chéramy [La chronique des arts 1897 and Meier-Graefe and Klossowski 1908]; Paul Alfred Chéramy, Paris; sold Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, May 5–7, 1908, no. 44 (ill.), for Fr 41,000, to Georges Petit, Paris [American Art News 1908; the buyer is given by Schnapper in Paris 1974/75]. Comtesse Joachim Murat (née Thérèse Bianchi; died 1940), Paris, by 1909 [lent by her to Paris 1909]; at her death to her sister, vicomtesse Fleury (née Renée Bianchi; died 1948); at her death to vicomte Fleury; sold to Wildenstein, New York, c. 1965 [according to telephone conversation of Joseph Baillio with Susan Wise, March 4, 1988, note in curatorial file]; sold to the Art Institute, 1967.