Landscape with Saint John on Patmos

View enlargement
Email to a friend
Print this page

Nicolas Poussin
French, 1594–1665

Landscape with Saint John on Patmos, 1640

Oil on canvas
100.3 x 136.4 cm (39 1/2 x 53 5/8 in.)
A. A. Munger Collection, 1930.500

Nicolas Poussin spent almost his entire career in Rome, where he created a severe, archaeologically informed classical style that would be promulgated by the French Academy for successive generations of artists. Behind Poussin's serene vision of antiquity was his belief, derived from ancient Stoic philosophy, in the Logos, a preexisting organizing spirit at the core of the universe. In this painting and its former companion piece, the Landscape with Saint Matthew, now in Berlin, Poussin placed the evangelists and their symbols in a landscape given order by classical ruins, thereby suggesting a philosophical continuity between the Greco-Roman world and the new vision of Christianity. Both landscapes were painted just before Poussin returned to Paris as first painter to the king; he soon left this official post to resume his independent career in Rome.

— Permanent collection label

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

London, British Institution, Works of Ancient Masters and Deceased British Artists, 1861, no. 22.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Century of Progress, 1933, no. 226.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Century of Progress, 1934, no. 147.

Art Institute of Chicago, Masterpiece of the Month, October 1939 (no cat.).

The Arts Club of Chicago, Origins of Modern Art, 1940, no. 35.

Worcester Art Museum, Massachusetts, Fiftieth Anniversary Exhibition of the Art of Europe during the XVIth – XVIIth Centuries, 1948, no. 7.

The Toledo Museum of Art, Nicolas Poussin, 1594-1665, 1959, pp. 27-28, traveled to Minneapolis.

Paris, Musée du Louvre, Exposition Nicolas Poussin, 1960, no. 68, traveled to Rouen.

Northampton, Massachusetts, Smith College Museum of Art, 1961 (no cat.).

New York, Wildenstein, Works of Art Lent from American Collections: The Italian Heritage, 1967, no. 68.

The Art Institute of Chicago, The Artist Looks at the Landscape, 1974 (no cat.).

New York, Wildenstein, Nature as Scene: French Landscape Painting from Poussin to Bonnard, 1975, no. 51.

Accademia di Francia a Roma, Villa Medici, Nicolas Poussin, 1594-1665, 1977-78, no. 28, traveled to Dusseldorf (no. 27 in German cat.).

Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, La Peinture française du XVIIe siècle dans les collections américaines, 1982, no. 91, traveled to New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art and Art Institute of Chicago.

Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Nicolas Poussin, 1594-1665, 1994-95, no. 94, traveled to London, Royal Academy of Arts.

Chicago, Museum of Contemporary Art, Negotiating Rapture: The Power of Art to Transform Lives, cat. by Richard Francis et al., 1996, no. 68.

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Poussin and Nature: Arcadian Visions, cat. by Pierre Rosenberg,2008, no. 36.

Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Nature et Idéal: Le Paysage à Rome, 1600-1650, no. 80, 2011, traveled to Madrd, Museo National del Prado.

Publication History

W[illiam] Buchanan, Memoirs of Painting, with a Chronological History of the Importation of Pictures by the Great Masters into England since the French Revolution, vol. 2, London, 1824, pp. 59, no. 91, 67, no. 29.

John Smith, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch, Flemish, and French Paintings, vol. 8, London, 1837, pp. 161-62, no. 316.

Adela Geddes, Memoir of the late Andrew Geddes, Esq., A.R.A., London, 1844, p. 16.

Charles Blanc, Histoire des peintres de toutes les écoles, pt. 2 Ecole française, vol. 1, Paris, 1864, Poussin, p. 24.

Emile Magne, Nicolas Poussin, premier peintre du roi, 1594-1665, Brussels and Paris, 1914, p. 214, no. 267.

Algernon Graves, Art Sales from Early in the Eighteenth Century to Early in the Twentieth Century, vol. 2, London, 1921, pp. 347, 349.

Walter Friedlaender in Das unbekannte Meisterwerk in öffentlichen und privaten Sammlungen, ed Wilhelm R. Valentiner, Berlin, 1930, no. 74, ill.

Hans Posse, “Johannes auf Patmos, ein wiedergefundenes Gemälde des Nicolas Poussin,” Pantheon 5 (1930), pp. 62, 64-64, ill.

Daniel Catton Rich, “Poussin and Cézanne,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 24 (1930), pp. 114-17, ill. cover.

“Chicago Buys a Poussin,” Art Digest 5, 7 (1931), p. 8.

Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Beschreibendes Verzeichnis der Gemälde im Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum und Deutschen Museum, 9th ed., Berlin, 1931, p. 372, under no. 478A.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Guide to the Paintings in the Permanent Collection, Chicago, 1931, p. 38, ill.

C[larence] J[oseph] Bulliet, Art Masterpiece in a Century of Progress Fine Arts Exhibition at The Art Institute of Chicago, vol. 2, Chicago, 1933, no. 88, ill.

Alfred M. Frankfurter, “Art in the Century of Progress,” Fine Arts, 20 (June 1933), p. 28 ill.

Walter Friedlaender in Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, ed. Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker, vol. 27, Leipzig, 1933, p. 326.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Brief Illustrated Guide to the Collection, Chicago, 1935, pp. 26-27, ill.

“Robert B. Harshe,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 32 (1938), p. 49, ill.

Walter Friedlaender, “America’s First Poussin Show: The Great Classicist Illustrated by his Cisatlantic Works,” Art News 38, 23 (1940), p. 14.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Brief Illustrated Guide to the Collections, Chicago, 1941, pp. 32-33, ill.

Anthony Blunt, “The Heroic and the Ideal Landscape in the Work of Nicolas Poussin,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 7 (1944), p. 156.

Art Institute of Chicago, An Illustrated Guide to the Collections of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 1945, p. 34, ill.

Anthony Blunt, “Two Newly Discovered Landscapes by Poussin,” Burlington Magazine 87 (1945), pp. 186, 189.

Art Institute of Chicago, An Illustrated Guide to the Collections of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 1948, p. 31, ill.

Thérèse Bertin-Mourot, “Addenda au catalogue de Grautoff depuis 1914,” Bulletin de la Société Poussin 2 (December 1948),, p. 52, no. XXXIII, ill.

Assia Visson, “Aux Etats-Unis: Le Cinquantième Anniversaire de la fondation du Worcester Art Museum,” Arts, beaux-arts, littéerature, spectacles, no. 168 (1948), p. 3 ill.

Worcester Art Museum News Bulletin and Calendar 13, 7 (1948), p. 27 ill.

Kenneth Clark, Landscape into Art, London 1949, p. 66, pl. 65; rev. ed., New York, 1976, p. 129, fig. 82.

Art Institute of Chicago, Masterpieces of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 1952, n. pag. ill.

Aline B. Louchheim, “A New Yorker Visits the Art Institute,” Art Institute of Chicago Quarterly 46 (1952), pp. 23,26, ill.

Theodore Rousseau, Jr., “Cézanne as an Old Master,” Art News 51, 2 (1952), pp. 29, 33, ill.

Fred Stephen Licht, Die Entwicklung der Landschaft in den Werken von Nicolas Poussin, Basler Studien zür Kunstgeschichte 11, Basel and Stuttgart, 1954, pp. 140-41.

Art Institute of Chicago, An Illustrated Guide to the Collections of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, [1956], pp. 31-32, ill.

Georges Wildenstein, Les Graveurs de Poussin au XVIIe siècle, Paris, 1957, p. 250, under no. 186.

Louis Réau, Iconoographie de l’art chrétien, Paris, 1958, vol. 3, part 2, p. 716.

Jean Grenier,”L’Esthétique classique vue à travers Poussin,” L’Oeil 58 (1959), pp. 48, 51, ill.

Malcolm Vaughan, “Poussin in America,” Connoisseur 143 (1959), p. 127, fig. 14.

Pierre du Colombier, “The Poussin Exhibition,” Burlington Magazine 102 (1960), p. 287.

“Inaccessible Poussins,” Connoisseur 146 (September 1960), p. 44, fig. 6.

John Shearman, “Les dessins de paysages de Poussin” in Nicolas Poussin, ed André Chastel, vol. 1, Paris, 1960, p. 181, ill. opp p. xii).

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago: A Catalogue of the Picture Collection, Chicago, 1961, pp. 231 ill., 360-61.

“Exhibitions,” Smith College Museum of Art Bulletin 41 (1961), p. 120.

Denis Mahon, “Réflexions sur les paysages de Poussin,” Art de France: Revue annuelle de l’art ancien et moderne 1 (1961), p. 120.

L’ideale classico de seicento in Italia e la pittura di paesaggio, exhibition catalogue, Bologna, Palazzo dell’Archiginnasio, 1962, pp. 192-3, under no. 72.

Chares Gates Dempsey, “Nicolas Poussin and the Natural Order,” Ph.D. diss., Princeton University, 1963 (Ann Arbor, Michigan, University Microfilms, 1986), pp. 9-10.

Walter Friedlaender and Anthony Blunt, The Drawings of Nicolas Poussin: Catalogue Raisonné, vol. 4, London, 1963, p. 46, under no. 279.

Malcolm R. Waddinham, “The Dughet Problem,” Paragone 14, 161 (1963), p. 43.

A[leksandr] S[emenovich] Glikman, Nicolas Poussin (in Russian), Leningrad and Moscow, 1964, pp. 79-80, fig. 31.

Anthony Blunt, “Poussin and His Roman Patrons” in Walter Friedlaender zum 90, Berlin, 1965, p. 59.

Anthony Blunt, the Paintings of Nicolas Poussin: A Critical Catalogue, London, 1966, pp. 59-60, no. 86, ill.

Walter Friedlaender, Nicolas Poussin: A New Approach, New York, [1966], p. 78, 174, pl. 38.

Anthony Blunt, Nicolas Poussin, The A. W. Mellon Lectures in the Fine Arts, 1958, Washington, D.C., 1967, vol. 1, pp. 248, 272-3, 283, 285 n. 10, vol. 2, pls. 151-2.

Kurt Badt, Die Kunst des Nicolas Poussin, Cologne, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 573-75, vol. 2, pl. 120.

Frances Vivian, “Poussin and Claude Seen from the Archivio Barberini,” Burlington Magazine 111 (1969), p. 722.

John Maxon, The Art Institute of Chicago, London, 1970, p. 48, ill.

Howard Hibbard, Poussin: The Holy Family on the Steps, New York, 1974, p. 35, fig. 12.

Jacques Thuillier, L’opera completa di Poussin, Classici dell’arte 72, Milan, 1974, pp. 102-103, no. 137, ill.

Anthony Blunt, “’Landscape by Gaspard, Figures by Nicolas’,” Burlington Magazine 117 (1975), p. 607.

Marcel Roethlisberger, “Guillerot,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 6th ser., 85 (1975), p. 125.

Annie Jolain in Emmanuel Bénézit, Dictioinaire critique et documentaire des peintres, sculpteurs, dessinateurs, et graveurs de tous les temps et de tous les pays, 4th ed., vol. 8, Paris, 1976, p. 460.

Jacques Thuillier, “Poussin et le paysage tragique: ‘L’Orage Pointel’ au Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rouen,” La Revue du Louvre 26 (1976), p. 354 n. 25.

Shuji Takashina, Poussin (in Japanese), Tokyo, 1977, p. 113, pl. 44.

The Art Institute of Chicago, 100 Masterpieces, Chicago, 1978, pl. 20.

Anthony Blunt, “Poussin at Rome and Düsseldorf,” Burlington Magazine 120 (1978), p. 421.

Yvonne Friedrichs, “Nicolas Poussin,” Das Kunstwerk 31, 2 (1978), p. 77.

Mariana Minola de Gallotti, “Nicolas Poussin, 1594-1665,” Goya 146 (1978), p. 125, ill.

Robert Lebel, “ Poussin chez lui ou non à Rome,” XXe siècle, n.s. 40, 50 (1978), p. 6, ill.

Marisa Volpi Orlandini, “Poussin a Roma e a Düsseldorf,” Antologia di belle arti 2, 7/8 (1978), p. 312.

Erich Schleier, “Die Poussin-Ausstellung in Rom und Düsseldorf,” Kunstcrhonik 31 (1978), p. 281.

András Szilági, Poussin, Budapest, 1978, p. 22, fig. 37.

Clovis Whitfield, “Poussin at Rome and Düsseldorf,” Connoisseur 197 (1978), p. 305.

Liaina Barroero, “Nuove acquisizioni per la cronologia di Poussin,” Bollettino d’arte 6 ser. 4 (1979), pp. 69-72, fig. 4.

Anthony Blunt, The Drawings of Poussin, New Haven and London, 1979, p. 122.

Sandro Corradini, “La quadreria di Giancarlo Roscioli,” Antologia di belle arti 3, 9 (1979), pp. 192, 194, no. 81, p. 195 n. 16, p. 196, n. 66.

John D. Morse, Old Master Paintings in North America, New York, 1979, p. 206.

Clovis Whitfield, “Poussin’s Early Landscapes,” Burlington Magazine 121 (1979), p. 10.

Simonetta Prosperi Valenti Rodinò in Disegni di Guglielmo Cortese (Guillaume Courtois) detto Il Borgognone nelle collezioni del Gabinetto Nazionale delle Stampe, exh. cat., Rome, Villa alla Farnesina alla Lungara, 1979-80, p.97, under no. 260.

Doris Wild, Nicolas Poussin: Leben, Werk, Exkurse, Zurich, 1980, vol. 1, pp. 108, 128, 130-31, vol. 2, p. 107, no. 114 (ill.), p. 108, under no. 115.

John D. Bandiera, “The Pictorial Treatment of Architecture in French Art, 1731 to 1804,” Ph.D. diss., New York University, 1982 (Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms, 1984), pp. 2-3, pl.1.

Anthony Blunt, “French Seventeenth-Century Painting: The Literature of the Last Ten Years,” Burlington Magazine 124 (1982), p.707.

Hugh Brigstocke, “France in the Golden Age,” Apollo 116 (1982), p.12.

André Chastel, “Les Etats-Unis et la peinture française: Entre Rome et Paris,” Le Monde, February 2, 1982, p.13.

JoLynn Edwards, “Alexandre Joseph Paillet (1743-1814): Study of a Parisian Art Dealer,” Ph.D. diss., University of Washington, 1982 (Ann Arbor, Mich., University Microfilms, 1984), p. 214, fig. 143.

J.V. Hantz, “La peinture française du XVIIe siècle dans les collections américaines,” L’Amateur d’art, no. 680 (1982), p.17.

Nicole Lamothe, “Les Caravagesques français,” L’Amateur d’art, no. 680 (1982), p. 14.

Pierre Rosenberg, “Edinburgh: Poussin Considered,” Burlington Magazine 124 (1982), p.376.

Pierre Rosenberg, “A Golden Century in French Painting,” Connaissance des arts 25 (February 1982), p.71.

Pierre Schneider, “L’Ombre du soleil,” L’Express, March 12-18, 1982, pp. 18-19.

Erich Schleier, “La peinture française du XVIIe siècle dans les collections américaines,” Kunstchronik 36 (1983), pp. 194, 228.

Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, Meisterwerke Gemäldegalerie Berlin, Berlin, 1985, p. 362; English ed., Masterworks of the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, New York, 1986, p. 362.

Sylvain Laveissière in Le Classicisme Français: Masterpieces of Seventeenth-Century Paintings, exh. cat., Dublin, The National Gallery of Ireland, 1985, p. 55.

Christopher Wright, The French Painters of the Seventeenth Century, London,1985, pp. 71, 249.

Christopher Wright, Poussin Paintings: A Catalogue Raisonné, New York, 1985, pp. 99, 101-02, 182, under no. 92, p. 206, under no.145, p. 207, under no. 148, p. 208, under no. 150, no. 151, pp. 252, 270, 273-74, 277, fig. 79.

Jean Clair, “L’Obélisque,” in Il se rendit en Italie”: Etudes offertes à André Chastel, Rome and Paris, 1987, pp. 692, 697, ill.

Marc Sandoz, “Essai sur le paysage de montagne dans la peinture française du XVIIe siècle,” Cahiers du paysage de montagne et de quelques sujets relatifs à la montagne 1 (1987), p. 46, fig. 60.

Art Institute of Chicago Master Paintings, Chicago 1988, p. 33, ill.

Burton B. Fredericksen, ed., The Index of Paintings Sold in the British Isles during the Nineteenth Century, vol. 1, 1801-1805, Santa Barbara, Calif., and Oxford, 1988, pp. 568, 979.

Sergio Guarino in La pittura in Italia: Il seicento, vol. 2, Milan, 1988, p. 850.

Jean Jacques Lévêque, La vie et l'oeuvre de Nicolas Poussin, Paris, 1988, p. 193.

Nicolas Poussin, Claude Lorrain: Zu den Bildern im Städel, exh. cat. Frankfurt, Stätdische Galerie im Städelschen Kunstinstitut, 1988, p. 14.

Jacques Thuillier, Nicolas Poussin, Paris, 1988, pp. 153, 254.

Yuri Zolotov, Poussin (in Russian), Moscow, 1988, pp. 130-31, 253, pl. 233.

Oskar Bätschmann, Nicolas Poussin: Dialectics of Painting, London, 1990, pp. 124, 147 n. 13.

Michael Kitson in Claude to Corot: The Development of Landscape Painting in France, exh. cat., New York, Colnaghi, 1990, p. 22.

Alain Mérot, Nicolas Poussin, Paris, 1990, pp. 112-13, 115 (ill.), 291, no. 213 (ill.), 305; English ed., tr. by Fabia Claris and Bridget Mason, New York, 1990, pp. 112-13, 115 ill., 291, no. 213 ill., 306.

Margaretha Rossholm Lagerlöf, Ideal Landscape: Annibale Carracci, Nicolas Poussin, and Claude Lorrain, New Haven and London, 1990, pp. 54-55, 64-65, 114, 138, 140, 236 n. 26, fig. 30.

Nadejda Petroussevitch and Yuri Zolotov in Nicolas Poussin, Leningrad and Paris, 1990, pp. 18-19, p. 127, under no. 18 (ill.).

Richard Verdi, Cézanne and Poussin: The Classical Vision of Landscape, exh. cat., Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland, 1990, pp. 26, 39, 42, 50, 73, under no. 5, p. 113, under no. 25, fig. 9.

Daniel Wheeler, Art Since Mid-Century: 1945 to the Present, New York, 1991, p. 9, fig. 5.

Christopher Wright, The World’s Master Paintings from the Early Renaissance to the Present Day: A Comprehensive Listing of Works by 1,300 Painters and a Complete Guide to Their Locations Worldwide, New York, 1991, vol. 1, p. 248, vol. 2, pp. 62, 495.

Angelika Grepmair-Müller, Landschaftskompositionen Von Nicolas Poussin, Frankfurt, Bern, New York, and Paris, 1992, pp. 55, 58-61, 65.

Robert J. Loescher, “Landscape Painting,” in Academic American Encyclopedia, Danbury, Conn., 1992, p. 190 (ill.).

Christopher Braider, Refiguring the Real: Picture and Modernity in Word and Image, 1400-1700, Princeton, 1993, pp. 239-40, fig. 73.

Malcom Bull, “Poussin’s Snakes,” in Cézanne and Poussin: A Symposium, ed. by Richard Kendall, Sheffield, England, 1993, p. 40.

Larry Silver, Art in History, New York, London, and Paris, 1993, pp. 250-51, fig. 6.27.

Marc Fumaroli, L’Ecole du silence: Le Sentiment des images au XVIIe siècle, Paris, 1994, pp. 122, 420-21, fig. 224.

Jacques Thuillier, Poussin, Paris, 1994, pp. 96, 119, 127 (ill.), p. 257, no. 148.

Louis Marin, Sublime Poussin, Paris, 1995, pp. 158-59.

Susan Wise in Susan Wise and Malcolm Warner, French and British Paintings from 1600 to 1800 in The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 1996, pp. 117-124, ill.

Konrad Oberhuber, “Les dessins due paysage du jeune Poussin” in Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665). Actes du colloque organisé au musée du Louvre par le Service culturel ddu 19 au 21 octobre 1994, ed. Alain Mérot, Paris, 1996, p. 104.

Clovis Whitfield, “À propos des paysages de Poussin” in Nicolas Poussin (1594-1665). Actes du colloque organisé au musée du Louvre par le Service culturel du 19 au 21 octobre 1994, ed. Alain Mérot, Paris, 1996, p. 252.

Elizabeth Cropper, “Ritorno al crocevia” in Poussin et Rome. Actes du colloque de’Académie de France à Rome 16-18 novembre 1994, ed. Olivier Bonfait et al., Paris, 1996, pp. 259-9, 267 n. 10.

JoLynn Edwards, Alexandre-Joseph Paillet, expert et marchand de tableaux à la fin du XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 1996, pp. 175-77, 304, no. 91, ill.

Sheila McTighe, Nicolas Poussin’s Landscape Allegories, Cambridge and New York, 1996, p. 14.

Sonia Amadio, “Per una prima ricognizione di dipinti di Nicolas Poussin: regesto di documenti di collezioni romane tra Sseicento e primo Settecento” in Nicolas Pussin. I primi anni romani, exh. cat., Rome, Palazzo dell Esposizioni, 1998, p. 146.

Henry Keazor, Poussins Parerega: Quellen, Entwicklung und Bedeutung der Kleinkompositionen in den Gemälden Nicolas Poussins, Regensburg, 1998, p. 25.

Helen Smailes, Andrew Geddes 1783-1844: Painter-Printmaker, “A Man of Pure Taste,” exh. cat., Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland, 2001, pp. 71, 80-84, 116 n. 124, 121 n. 148, fig. 62.

Todd P. Olson, Poussin and France: Painting, Humanism, and the Politics of Style, New Haven and London, 2002, p. 218, fig. 109.

Ownership History

Commissioned by abate Gian Maria Roscioli (died 1644), Rome, and paid for, with its pendant (Landscape with Saint Mathew, now Berlin, Gemäldegalerie) on October 28, 1640 for 40 écus [documents published by Barroero 1979 and Corradini 1979). Probably in a French collection by 1680 [when engraved by Louis de Châtillon, c. 1680]. François-Antoine Robit, Paris, sold Paillet and Delaroche, Paris, May 11 and following, 1801, no. 91, to Naudou acting for Michael Bryan, for Fr 7,100 [see Edwards 1996, pp. 299, 304]; sold by Bryan, probably shortly thereafter, to Sir Simon Clarke, Bt (died 1832), Oakhill, Hertfordshire, for 1,000 gns. [see Buchanan 1824; with George Hibbert, Clarke had provided financial support for Bryan’s purchases at the Robit sale]; sold Christie’s, London, May 8-9, 1840, no. 39, to Geddes for 86 gns. [price and buyer in annotated catalogue at the Frick Art Reference Library]; Andrew Geddes, A.R.A. (died 1844), London; by descent to his widow, Adela Plimer Geddes (died 1881), offered for sale, Christie’s, London, April 12, 1845, no. 651, bought in; offered for sale, Christie’s, London, November 30, 1867, no. 56, bought in [annotated catalogue from Christie’s archive, copy in curatorial file]. Acquired on the London art market by Max Rothschild, 1918 [according to Blunt 1966; in London 1960 Blunt stated that Rothschild acquired the picture in 1928]. Possibly identical with the picture that was sold at Christie’s, London, December 16, 1927, no. 86, to Leger for £21[see Art Prices Current, n.s. 7 London, 1928, p. 105, the dimensions given as 40 x 52 1/2 inches; see also Posse 1930]. E. A. Fleischmann Gallery, Munich, by 1930; sold to the Art Institute, 1930.