Pierre-Auguste Renoir
French, 1841-1919

Acrobats at the Cirque Fernando (Francisca and Angelina Wartenberg), 1879

Oil on canvas
131.2 x 99.2 cm (51 ½ x 39 1/16 in.)
Inscribed at lower left: Renoir
Potter Palmer Collection, 1922.440

Acrobats at the Cirque Fernando (Francisca and Angelina Wartenberg)

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This work is featured in the online catalogue Renoir Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, the second volume in the Art Institute’s scholarly digital series on the Impressionist circle. The catalogue offers in-depth curatorial and technical entries on 25 artworks by Pierre-Auguste Renoir in the museum’s collection; entries feature interactive and layered high-resolution imaging, previously unpublished technical photographs, archival materials, and documentation relating to each artwork.

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Paris, Offices of La vie moderne, Cinquième exposition de La vie moderne, P.-A. Renoir, June 19–July 3, 1879, no cat.

Paris, 251, rue Saint-Honoré, Salons du Panorama de Reischoffen, 7me exposition des artistes independants [seventh Impressionist exhibition], Mar. 1–31, 1882, no cat. no.

New York, American Art Galleries, Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris, Apr. 10–28, 1886, cat. 209; New York, National Academy of Design, May 25–June 30, 1886, as Au Cirque.

Paris, Durand-Ruel, Exposition A. Renoir, May 1892, cat. 3, as Au Cirque.

Cambridge, Mass., Fogg Art Museum, Exhibition of French Painting of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, Mar. 6–Apr. 7, 1929, cat. 80 (ill.).

Northampton, Mass., Smith College Museum of Art, One Picture Exhibition, Oct. 29–Nov. 29, 1932, no cat.

Art Institute of Chicago, Children’s Museum, Circus Scenes, Dec. 2–19, 1932, no cat.

Art Institute of Chicago, “A Century of Progress”: Loan Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture, May 23–Nov. 1, 1933, cat. 351 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, “A Century of Progress”: Loan Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture for 1934, June 1–Oct. 31, 1934, cat. 240.

Baltimore Museum of Art, A Survey of French Painting, Nov. 23, 1934–Jan. 1, 1935, cat. 33 (ill.).

Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, A Survey of French Painting, Apr. 2–May 14, 1936, cat. 42.

Cleveland Museum of Art, The Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition: The Official Art Exhibit of the Great Lakes Exposition, June 26–Oct. 4, 1936, cat. 302.

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Renoir: A Special Exhibition of His Paintings, May 18–Sept. 12, 1937, cat. 15 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, The Masterpiece of the Month: Two Little Circus Girls, by August Renoir (French, 1841–1919), Jan. 3–31, 1939, no cat.

Paris, Musée de l’Orangerie, De David à Toulouse Lautrec: Chefs-d’oeuvre des collections américaines, Apr. 20–July 3, 1955, cat. 46 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings by Renoir, Feb. 3–Apr. 1, 1973, cat. 24 (ill.).

Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, Celebration: Inaugural Exhibition of the Sarah Scaife Gallery of the Museum of Art, Oct. 26, 1974–Jan. 5, 1975, cat. 7 (ill.).

Tokyo, Seibu Museum of Art, Shikago bijutsukan insho-ha ten [The Impressionist tradition: Masterpieces from the Art Institute of Chicago], Oct. 18–Dec. 17, 1985, cat. 33 (ill.); Fukuoka Art Museum, Jan. 5–Feb. 2, 1986; Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, Mar. 4–Apr. 13, 1986.

Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, Jan. 17–Apr. 6, 1986, cat. 134 (ill.); Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, Apr. 19–July 6, 1986 (San Francisco only).

Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), State Hermitage Museum, Ot Delakrua do Matissa: Shedevry frantsuzskoi zhivopisi XIX–nachala XX veka, iz Muzeia Metropoliten v N’iu-Iorke i Khudozhestvennogo Instituta v Chikago [From Delacroix to Matisse: Great masterpieces of French painting of the nineteenth to the beginning of the twentieth century from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago], Mar. 15–May 16, 1988, cat. 21 (ill.); Moscow, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, May 30–July 30, 1988.

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago’s Dream, a World’s Treasure: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1893–1993, Nov. 1, 1993–Jan. 9, 1994, no cat. no.

Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, Renoir’s Portraits: Impressions of an Age, June 27–Sept. 14, 1997, cat. 35 (ill.); Art Institute of Chicago, Oct. 17, 1997–Jan. 4, 1998; Fort Worth, Tex., Kimbell Art Museum, Feb. 8–Apr. 26, 1998.

Fort Worth, Tex., Kimbell Art Museum, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, June 29–Nov. 2, 2008, cat. 26 (ill.).

New York, Frick Collection, Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting, Feb. 7–May 13, 2012, cat. 44 (ill.).

Publication History

Edmond Renoir, “Cinquième exposition de La vie moderne, P.-A. Renoir,” La vie moderne 1, 11 (June 19, 1879) p. 175.

L. de Beaumarchez, “5e exposition de la ‘Vie moderne.’ P.-A. Renoir,” La presse, June 23, 1879, p. 2.

Fichtre, “L’actualité: L’exposition des peintres independents,” Le réveil, Mar. 2, 1882, p. 1. Reprinted in Ruth Berson, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886; Documentation, vol. 1, Reviews (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco/University of Washington Press, 1996), p. 387.

American Art Association, Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris, exh. cat. (J. J. Little/American Art Galleries, 1886), p. 35, cat. 209.

American Art Association, Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris, exh. cat. (National Academy of Design, 1886), p. 48, cat. 209.

“French Impressionists,” New York Times, May 28, 1886, p. 5.

Durand-Ruel, Paris, Exposition A. Renoir, exh. cat. (Imp. de l’Art/E. Ménard, 1892), p. 37, no. 3.

Julius Meier-Graefe, Auguste Renoir (R. Piper, 1911), p. 16. Translated into French by A. S. Maillet as Auguste Renoir (H. Floury, 1912), p. 12.

Ambroise Vollard, Tableaux, pastels et dessins de Pierre-Auguste Renoir, vol. 1 (A. Vollard, 1918), p. 87, no. 348 (ill.).

Ambroise Vollard, La vie and l’oeuvre de Pierre-Auguste Renoir (A. Vollard, 1919), p. 67. Translated by Harold L. Van Doren and Randolph T. Weaver as Renoir: An Intimate Record (Knopf, 1925), pp. 69, 237.

Georges Rivière, Renoir et ses amis (H. Floury, 1921), pp. 145 (ill.), 146.

Art Institute of Chicago, Forty-Third Annual Report for the Year 1921 (Art Institute of Chicago, 1921), p. 39 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Handbook of Sculpture, Architecture, and Paintings, pt. 2, Paintings (Art Institute of Chicago, 1922), p. 69, cat. 847.

Art Institute of Chicago, “The Potter Palmer Collection of Paintings,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 16, 3 (May 1922), pp. 37, 38 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, “Accessions and Loans,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 16, 3 (May 1922), p. 47.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Guide to the Paintings in the Permanent Collection (Art Institute of Chicago, 1925), pp. 66 (ill.); 150, cat. 847.

M. C., “Renoirs in the Institute,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 19, 3 (Mar. 1925), pp. 32, 33 (ill.).

Albert André, Renoir (G. Crès, 1928), pl. 36.

Fogg Art Museum, Exhibition of French Painting of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, exh. cat. (Harvard University Press, 1929), p. 19, no. 80; pl. 33.

Julius Meier-Graefe, Renoir (Klinkhardt & Biermann, 1929), pp. 29, n. 1; 56, no. 6 (ill.).

Forbes Watson, “The Fogg Museum Celebrates,” The Arts 15, 4 (Apr. 1929), p. 226 (ill.).

Albert Franz Cochrane, “Fogg Museum Stages Magnificent Exhibition of French Art,” Boston Evening Transcript, Mar. 9, 1929, p. 13.

C. J. Bulliet, “Fogg Museum Joins in Fight on Fog [Pardon!],” Chicago Evening Post, Apr. 16, 1929, pp. 1, 4 (ill.).

James O’Donnell Bennett, “A Layman Views Art Institute’s Rare Paintings,” Chicago Daily Tribune, June 7, 1931, p. 8.

Reginald Howard Wilenski, French Painting (Hale, Cushman & Flint, 1931), p. 262; pl. 107.

Jacques-Émile Blanche, Les arts plastiques (Éd. de France, 1931), p. 73.

Art Institute of Chicago, Catalogue of “A Century of Progress”: Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture; Lent from American Collections, ed. Daniel Catton Rich, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1933), p. 50, cat. 351; pl. 58/cat. 351.

Art Institute of Chicago, “The Century of Progress Exhibition of the Fine Arts,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 27, 4 (Apr.–May 1933), p. 67.

Art Institute of Chicago, “The Rearrangement of the Painting Galleries,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 27, 7 (Dec. 1933), p. 115.

J. A., “Exhibitions,” Bulletin of Smith College Museum of Art 14 (May 1933), pp. 13 (ill.), 16.

Smith College Museum of Art, “Accessions and Loans,” Bulletin of Smith College Museum of Art 14 (May 1933), p. 22.

Daniel Catton Rich, “Französische Impressionisten im Art Institute zu Chicago,” Pantheon: Monatsschrift für Freunde und Sammler der Kunst 11, 3 (Mar. 1933), pp. 72 (ill.), 77. Translated by C. C. H. Drechsel as “French Impressionists in the Art Institute of Chicago,” Pantheon/Cicerone (Mar. 1933) p. 18.

Daniel Catton Rich, “The Exhibition of French Art, ‘Art Institute’ of Chicago,” Formes 33 (1933), p. 382.

Clarence Joseph Bulliet, Art Masterpieces in a Century of Progress Fine Arts Exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago, vol. 1 (Chicago Daily News/North-Mariano Press, 1933), no. 14 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Catalogue of “A Century of Progress”: Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture, 1934, ed. Daniel Catton Rich, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1934), p. 40, cat. 240.

Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker, “Renoir,” in Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler, vol. 28, Ramsden–Rosa (Seemann, 1934), p. 169.

Baltimore Museum of Art, A Survey of French Painting Exhibition, exh. cat. (Baltimore Museum of Art, 1934), pp. 11; 19, cat. 33; 47, cat. 33 (ill.).

Albert C. Barnes and Violette de Mazia, The Art of Renoir (Minton, Balch, 1935), pp. 71; 72–74; 89; 188; 262, no. 99 (ill.); 451, no. 99.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Brief Illustrated Guide to the Collections (Art Institute of Chicago, 1935), p. 28 (ill.).

Carnegie Institute, A Survey of French Painting, exh. cat. (Carnegie Institute, 1936), cat. 42.

Cleveland Museum of Art, Catalogue of the Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition of the Cleveland Museum of Art: The Official Art Exhibit of the Great Lakes Exposition, exh. cat. (Cleveland Museum of Art, 1936), pp. 115–16, cat. 302.

Clarence Joseph Bulliet, The Significant Moderns and Their Pictures (Covici, Friede, 1936), pl. 33.

Henry McBride, “The Renoirs of America: An Appreciation of the Metropolitan Museum’s Exhibition,” Art News 35, 31 (May 1, 1937), pp. 60, 68 (ill.), 158.

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Renoir: A Special Exhibition of His Paintings, exh. cat. (Metropolitan Museum of Art/Bradford, 1937), p. 5; no. 15 (ill.).

Lionello Venturi, Les archives de l’impressionnisme: Lettres de Renoir, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley et autres; Mémoires de Paul Durand-Ruel; Documents, vol. 2 (Durand-Ruel, 1939), p. 337.

Josephine L. Allen, “Paintings by Renoir,” Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 32, 5 (May 1937), p. 112.

Art Institute of Chicago, “Exhibitions,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 33, 1 (Jan. 1939), p. 15.

Reginald Howard Wilenski, Modern French Painters (Reynal & Hitchcook, [1940]), p. 337.

“Chicago Art Institute,” Life (Sept. 8, 1941), pp. 54 (ill.), 59 (ill.).

Regina Shoolman and Charles E. Slatkin, The Enjoyment of Art in America: A Survey of the Permanent Collections of Painting, Sculpture, Ceramics and Decorative Arts in American and Canadian Museums; Being an Introduction to the Masterpieces of Art from Prehistoric to Modern Times (Lippincott, 1942), p. 557; pl. 541.

Daniel Catton Rich, “Potter Palmer and the Art Development of the Museum,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 37, 6 (Nov. 1943), p. 84 (ill.).

Frederick A. Sweet, “Potter Palmer and the Painting Department,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 37, 6 (Nov. 1943), p. 86.

Michel Drucker, Renoir, with a preface by Germain Bazin (P. Tisné, 1944), pp. 55, 185, 201–02; pl. 56.

Art Institute of Chicago, An Illustrated Guide to the Collections of the Art Institute of Chicago (Art Institute of Chicago, 1945), p. 36.

“Chicago Perfects Its Renoir Group,” Art News 44, 16, pt. 1 (Dec. 1–14, 1945), p. 18 (ill.).

Hans Huth, “Impressionism Comes to America,” Gazette des beaux-arts 29 (1946), pp. 239, n. 22; 240; 241, fig. 15.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Picture Book: Masterpieces of Painting, XIX Century, in the Collections of the Art Institute of Chicago, prepared by Helen F. Mackenzie (Art Institute of Chicago, 1946), pp. 1, 21, 22 (ill.), 23.

Art Institute of Chicago, “Notes,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 41, 7 (Dec. 1947), p. 96.

Walter Pach, Pierre Auguste Renoir, Library of Great Painters (Abrams, 1950), pp. 52–53 (ill.).

Daniel Catton Rich, “Midwest Art Capital,” Town and Country 105 (Mar. 1951), pp. 72–73 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Masterpieces in the Art Institute of Chicago (Art Institute of Chicago, 1952), (ill.).

Charles Fabens Kelley, “Chicago: Record Years,” Art News 51, 4 (June–Aug. 1952), pp. 55 (ill.), 107.

Marcelle Berr de Turique, Renoir (Phaidon, [1953]), p. 8; pl. 36.

Jean-Louis Vaudoyer, Renoir, Le grand art en livres de poche (Flammarion, 1953), pl. 11.

Dorothy Bridaham, Renoir in the Art Institute of Chicago (Conzett & Huber, 1954), pl. 3.

M. K. R., “An Exhibition for Paris,” Art Institute of Chicago Quarterly 49, 2 (Apr. 1955), p. 28.

Musée de l’Orangerie, De David à Toulouse Lautrec: Chefs-d’oeuvre des collections américaines, exh. cat. (Musée de l’Orangerie, 1955), cat. 46; pl. 48.

Theodore Rousseau, “De David a [sic] Toulouse-Lautrec dans les collections et musées Americains,” Art et style 34 (1955), (ill.).

“Les expositions a [sic] Paris,” Connaissance des arts 39 (May 15, 1955), p. 77.

Ishbel Ross, Silhouette in Diamonds: The Life of Mrs. Potter Palmer (Harper & Bros., 1960), p. 155.

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago: A Catalogue of the Picture Collection (Art Institute of Chicago, 1961), pp. 282 (ill.), 394.

François Fosca, Renoir: L’homme et son oeuvre (A. Somogy, 1961), pp. 112 (ill.), 118, 281. Translated by Mary I. Martin as Renoir, His Life and Work (Prentice-Hall, 1962), pp. 112 (ill.), 117, 269.

Rodolfo Pallucchini, “L’Art Institute di Chicago,” L’illustrazione del medico 33, 218 (Feb. 1966), pp. 14; 15, fig. 7.

Frederick A. Sweet, “Great Chicago Collectors,” Apollo 84 (Sept. 1966), pp. 192, fig. 7; 194.

Charles C. Cunningham, Instituto de arte de Chicago, El mundo de los museos 2 (Editorial Codex, 1967), p. 19.

André Parinaud and Charles C. Cunningham, Art Institute of Chicago, Grands musées 2 (Hachette-Filipacchi, 1969), p. 11.

Charles C. Cunningham and Satoshi Takahashi, Shikago bijutsukan [Art Institute of Chicago], Museums of the World 32 (Kodansha, 1970), pp. 51, pl. 37 (detail); 159–60 (ill.).

John Maxon, The Art Institute of Chicago (Abrams, 1970), pp. 85–86 (ill.).

François Daulte, Auguste Renoir: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, vol. 1, Figures, 1860–1890 (Durand-Ruel, 1971), pp. 228–29, cat. 297 (ill.).

Elda Fezzi, L’opera completa di Renoir: Nel periodo impressionista, 1869–1883, Classici dell’arte 59 (Rizzoli, 1972), pp. 103–04, cat. 333 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, “Lecturer’s Choice,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 67, 4 (Jul.–Aug. 1973), p. 11.

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings by Renoir, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1973), pp. 38; 76–77, cat. 24 (ill.).

Carnegie Institute, Carnegie Institute Celebration, exh. cat. (Carnegie Institute, 1975), cat. 7 (ill.).

Walter Pach, Auguste Renoir: Leben und Werk, trans. Walter Pach (M. DuMont Schauberg, 1976), pp. 78–79; 167; fig. 5.

Anthea Callen, Renoir (Oresko, 1978), p. 66, no. 46 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, 100 Masterpieces (Art Institute of Chicago, 1978), pp. 20; 102, pl. 57.

Yomiuri Shimbun Sha, Exposition Renoir, exh. cat. (Isetan Museum of Art/Kyoto Municipal Museum/Yomiuri Shimbun Sha, 1979), (ill.).

J. Patrice Marandel, The Art Institute of Chicago: Favorite Impressionist Paintings (Crown, 1979), pp. 70–71 (ill.).

Sophie Monneret, L’impressionnisme et son époque: Dictionnaire international illustré, vol. 2 (Denoël, 1979), p. 175.

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism (Abbeville, 1980), p. 269 (ill.).

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism, Tiny Folios (Abbeville, 1980), p. 158, pl. 18.

Horst Keller, The Great Book of French Impressionism, trans. from the German by Alexis Brown (Hudson Hills, 1980), fig. 122.

Art Institute of Chicago, Pocket Guide to the Art Institute of Chicago (Art Institute of Chicago, 1983), pp. 25, no. 27 (ill.); 62.

Barbara Ehrlich White, Renoir: His Life, Art, and Letters (Abrams, 1984), pp. 82–83 (ill.), 165, 192.

Art Institute of Chicago, Seibu Museum of Art, Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, and Fukuoka Art Museum, eds., Shikago bijutsukan insho-ha ten [The Impressionist tradition: Masterpieces from the Art Institute of Chicago], trans. Akihiko Inoue, Hideo Namba, Heisaku Harada, and Yoko Maeda, exh. cat. (Nippon Television Network, 1985), pp. 16; 17; 78, cat. 33 (ill.); 79 (detail); 146, cat. 33 (ill.).

Joel Isaacson, “The Painters Called Impressionists,” in The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, ed. Charles S. Moffett, with the assistance of Ruth Berson, Barbara Lee Williams, and Fronia E. Wissman, exh. cat. (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1986), pp. 380; 395; 417, cat. 134 (ill.).

Christopher Lloyd, “The Impact of Impressionism,” in Christopher Lloyd and Richard Thomson, Impressionist Drawings from British Public and Private Collections, exh. cat. (Phaidon/Arts Council, 1986), pp. 19; 23, fig. 24.

Richard R. Brettell, French Impressionists (Art Institute of Chicago/Abrams, 1987), pp. 54 (ill.), 55, 119.

Nicholas Wadley, ed., Renoir: A Retrospective (Hugh Lauter Levin/Macmillan, 1987), pp. 131; 177, pl. 63.

Art Institute of Chicago, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood and Katharine C. Lee (Art Institute of Chicago/New York Graphic Society Books/Little, Brown, 1988), pp. 8, 61 (ill.), 65.

Ministry of Culture; State Hermitage Museum; Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; and Art Institute of Chicago, Ot Delakrua do Matissa: Shedevry frantsuzskoi zhivopisi XIX–nachala XX veka, iz Muzeia Metropoliten v N’iu-Iorke i Khudozhestvennogo Instituta v Chikago [From Delacroix to Matisse: Masterpieces of French painting of the nineteenth to the beginning of the twentieth century from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago], trans. from English by Iu. A. Kleiner and A. A. Zhukov, exh. cat. (Avrora, 1988), cat. 21 (ill.).

Raffaele De Grada, Renoir (Giorgio Mondadori, 1989), p. 59, pl. 37.

Sophie Monneret, Renoir, Profils de l’art (Chêne, 1989), pp. 82–83, fig. 4.

Edward Lucie-Smith, Impressionist Women (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1989), pp. 137, pl. 124; 139.

Eric Darragon, “Pégase à Fernando. A propos de Cirque et du réalisme de Seurat en 1891,” Revue de l’art 86 (1989), p. 57, n. 68.

Lesley Stevenson, H. de Toulouse Lautrec (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1991), p. 65.

Lesley Stevenson, Renoir (Bison Group, 1991), pp. 102–03 (ill.).

Catherine Strasser, Seurat: Cirque pour un monde nouveau (Biro, 1991), p. 12, ill. 7.

William R. Johnston, “Alfred Sisley and Early Interest in Impressionism in America, 1865–1913,” in Alfred Sisley, ed. MaryAnne Stevens, exh. cat. (Royal Academy of Arts/Musée d’Orsay/Walters Art Gallery/Yale University Press, 1992), p. 66.

Richard Thomson, “Représentations de Montmartre,” in Hayward Gallery and Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Toulouse-Lautrec, exh. cat. (South Bank Centre/Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1992), p. 231.

Anne Distel, Renoir: “Il faut embellir,” Découvertes Gallimard: Peinture 177 (Gallimard/Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1993), p. 59 (ill.). Translated by Lory Frankel as Renoir: A Sensuous Vision (Thames & Hudson, 1995), p. 59 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Treasures of 19th- and 20th-Century Painting: The Art Institute of Chicago, with an introduction by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Abbeville, 1993), p. 75 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, The Art Institute of Chicago: The Essential Guide, selected by James N. Wood and Teri J. Edelstein, entries written and compiled by Sally Ruth May (Art Institute of Chicago, 1993), pp. 156 (ill.), 157.

Neil Harris, Chicago’s Dream, a World’s Treasure: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1893–1993, with an afterword by James N. Wood, ed. Teri J. Edelstein, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1993), p. 32, pl. 10.

Gerhard Gruitrooy, Renoir: A Master of Impressionism (Todtri, 1994), pp. 82, 86–87 (detail), 97 (ill.).

Margherita Andreotti, “The Joseph Winterbotham Collection,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 20, 2 (1994), p. 124.

Francesca Castellani, Pierre-Auguste Renoir: La vita e l’opera (Mondadori, 1996), pp. 124–25 (ill.).

Ruth Berson, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886; Documentation, vol. 1, Reviews (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco/University of Washington Press, 1996), p. 387.

Ruth Berson, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886; Documentation, vol. 2, Exhibited Works (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco/University of Washington Press, 1996), pp. 212, 232 (ill.).

Karin Sagner-Düchting, Renoir: Paris and the Belle Époque, trans. Fiona Elliott (Prestel, 1996), pp. 42–43 (ill.).

Douglas W. Druick, Renoir, Artists in Focus (Art Institute of Chicago/Abrams, 1997), pp. 2 (detail); 38–41; 72; 85, pl. 4; 109.

Colin B. Bailey, with the assistance of John B. Collins, Renoir’s Portraits: Impressions of an Age, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Canada/Yale University Press, 1997), pp. 28; 172–174, cat. 35 (ill.); 302–304, cat. 35. Translated by Danielle Chaput and Julie Desgagné, with support from Nada Kerpan for the texts by Linda Nochlin, as Les portraits de Renoir: Impressions d’une époque, exh. cat. (Gallimard/Musée des Beaux-Arts du Canada, 1997), pp. 31; 172–74, cat. 35 (ill.); 302–04, cat. 35 (ill.).

Kimbell Art Museum, “Renoir’s Portraits: Impressions of an Age,” Calendar (Aug. 1997–Jan. 1998), p. 15 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 1999), pp. 8, 57 (ill.).

Charlotte Gere and Marina Vaizey, Great Women Collectors (Philip Wilson/Abrams, 1999), pp. 132, 133.

Janet Snyder Matthews and Linda Williams Mansperger, Mrs. Potter Palmer: Legendary Lady of Sarasota, exh. cat. (Gulf Coast Heritage Association, [1999]), pp. 8, 130.

Art Institute of Chicago, Shikago bijutsukan [Art Institute of Chicago], Museums of the World 22 (Kodansha, 2000), pp. 8–9 (ill.), 25 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 2000), pp. 9, 55, 57 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Treasures from the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood, with commentaries by Debra N. Mancoff (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 2000), pp. 183, 206–07 (ill.).

Gilles Néret, Renoir: Painter of Happiness, 1841–1919, trans. Josephine Bacon (Taschen, 2001), pp. 110–11 (ill.), 130.

John Collins, “Marguerite (Francisca) and Angelina Wartenberg,” in Dictionary of Artist’s Models, ed. Jill Berk Jiminez (Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001), pp. 557–60 (ill.).

John B. Collins, “Seeking l’Esprit Gaulois: Renoir’s Bal du Moulin de la Galette and Aspects of French Social History and Popular Culture” (Ph.D. diss., McGill University, 2001), pp. 86, n. 24; 87; 174; fig. 93.

Eleanor Dwight, ed., The Letters of Pauline Palmer: A Great Lady of Chicago’s First Family (M. T. Train/Scala, 2005), pp. 293 (ill.), 295.

Sue Roe, The Private Lives of the Impressionists (Chatto & Windus, 2006), p. 262.

Zeev Gourarier, “1874–1963. Fernando et Medrano: Artistes de cirque et cirque des artistes,” in Picasso et le cirque, ed. Dominique Dupuis-Labbé and Maria Teresa Ocaña, exh. cat. (Fondation Pierre Gianadda, 2006), pp. 49, fig. 1; 52.

Huub Beurskens, Ed Wingen, Leo Duppen, et al., Het circus in de beeldende kunst (KcH, 2006), fig. 3.

Guy-Patrice Dauberville and Michel Dauberville, with the collaboration of Camille Frémontier-Murphy, Renoir: Catalogue raisonné des tableaux, pastels, dessins et aquarelles, vol. 1, 1858–1881 (Bernheim-Jeune, 2007), pp. 292; 294, cat. 251 (ill.).

Anna Green, French Paintings of Childhood and Adolescence, 1848–1886 (Ashgate, 2007), pp. 97; 98; pl. 5.
Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Kimbell Art Museum, 2008), pp. 14 (ill.); 70–71, cat. 26 (ill.); 129. Simultaneously published as Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, The Age of Impressionism at the Art Institute of Chicago (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 14 (ill.); 70–71, cat. 26 (ill.); 129.

Art Institute of Chicago, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James Cuno (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2009), pp. 8, 56 (ill.), 62.

Anne Distel, Renoir (Citadelles & Mazenod, 2009), pp. 165, 239.

Colin B. Bailey, Renoir, Impressionism, and Full-Length Painting, exh. cat. (Frick Collection/Yale University Press, 2012), pp. iii (ill.); 23; 102; 124; 125 (ill.); 126–33; 134–35 (detail); 135–37; 224, cat. 44 (ill.).

Gloria Groom, “Spaces of Modernity,” in Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, ed. Gloria Groom, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Metropolitan Museum of Art/Musée d’Orsay/Yale University Press, 2012), p. 182. Translated as “Les espaces de la modernité,” in L’impressionnisme et la mode, ed. Gloria Groom, exh. cat. (Musée d’Orsay/Skira Flammarion, 2012), p. 52.

Karen Rosenberg, “Soigné Parisians, Fit for a Grand Canvas,” New York Times, Feb. 10, 2012, p. 27.

Nancy Ireson, “New Arenas: Degas’s Legacy at the Cirque Fernando,” in Linda Wolk-Simon, Degas, Miss La La, and the Cirque Fernando, with contributions by Nancy Ireson and Eveline Baseggio Omiccioli, exh. cat. (Morgan Library & Museum, New York, 2013), pp. 31; 32, fig. 13.

“Cat. 9: Acrobats at the Cirque Fernando (Francisca and Angelina Wartenberg), 1879,” in Renoir Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, ed. Gloria Groom and Jill Shaw (Art Institute of Chicago, 2014).

Ownership History

Deposited by the artist with Durand-Ruel, Paris, Apr. 6, 1881. [1]

Sold by the artist to Durand-Ruel, Paris, May 12, 1882, for 2,000 francs. [2]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, Paris, to Potter Palmer, Chicago, May 11, 1892, for 8,000 francs. [3]

By descent from Potter Palmer (died 1902), Chicago, to the Palmer family. [4]

Given by the Palmer family to the Art Institute of Chicago, 1922.

NOTES

[1] This transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock book for 1879–84 (no. 3155, as Les Petites acrobates): “Déposé par l’artiste chez Durand-Ruel Paris le 6 avril 1881, Les Petites acrobats,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, Oct. 5, 2010, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[2] This transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock book for 1880–82 (no. 2362, as Les Saltimbanques): “(stock 2362), Les Saltimbanques,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, Oct. 5, 2010, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. See also Colin B. Bailey, with the assistance of John B. Collins, Renoir’s Portraits: Impressions of an Age, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Canada/Yale University Press, 1997), p. 302.

[3] This transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock book for 1891 (no. 319, as Dans le cirque): “Vendu par Durand-Ruel Paris (stock 319) à Potter Palmer le 11 mai 1892 pour 8000 francs, Dans le cirque,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, Oct. 5, 2010, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. Colin Bailey notes that 8,000 francs was equal to $1,750; see Colin B. Bailey, with the assistance of John B. Collins, Renoir’s Portraits: Impressions of an Age, exh. cat. (National Gallery of Canada/Yale University Press, 1997), p. 302.

[4] This painting was on loan from the Palmer family to the Art Institute of Chicago, intermittently, by 1921, according to Museum Registration Department Artists Sheets, on file in Museum Registration, Art Institute of Chicago.