Acrobats at the Cirque Fernando (Francisca and Angelina Wartenberg)

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Pierre-Auguste Renoir
French, 1841-1919

Acrobats at the Cirque Fernando (Francisca and Angelina Wartenberg), 1879

Oil on canvas
131.2 x 99.2 cm (51 ½ x 39 1/16 in.)
Inscribed at lower left: Renoir
Potter Palmer Collection, 1922.440

One of four permanent circuses in Paris, the Cirque Fernando opened in Montmartre in 1875, attracting an enthusiastic following that included members of the Impressionist circle. Pierre-Auguste Renoir's painting features Francisca Wartenberg (left) and her sister, Angelina (right), members of an itinerant German acrobatic troupe. Ages 17 and 14, respectively, the girls take their bows after a performance, gathering up the tissue-wrapped oranges tossed to them as tributes by members of the audience.

— Permanent collection label

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Paris, Offices of La Vie Moderne, Paris, Cinquième Exposition de La Vie moderne, P.–A. Renoir, June 19–July 3, 1879, no. cat.

Paris, 251, rue Saint-Honoré, Salons du Panorama de Reischoffen, 7me exposition des artistes independants [Seventh Impressionist Exhibition], March 1–31, 1882, no cat. no.

New York, American Art Galleries, Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris, April 10–28, 1886, cat. 209; traveled to New York, National Academy of Design, May 25–June 30, 1886.

Paris, Galeries Durand-Ruel, Exposition A. Renoir, May 1892, cat. 3.

Cambridge, Massachusetts, Fogg Art Museum, Exhibition of French Painting of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, March 6–April 7, 1929, cat. 80 (ill.).

Northampton, Massachusetts, Smith College Museum of Art, One Picture Exhibition, Winter 1932–1933, no. cat.(?).

Children’s Museum, Circus Scenes, December, 1–14, 1932.

Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, A Century of Progress Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture, May 23–November 1, 1933, cat. 351 (ill.).

Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, A Century of Progress Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture, June 1–October 31, 1934, cat. 240.

Baltimore, Baltimore Museum of Art, A Survey of French Painting, November 23, 1934–January 1, 1935, cat. 33 (ill.).

Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, A Survey of French Painting, April 2–May 14, 1936, cat. 42.

Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art, The Twentieth Anniversary Exhibition: The Official Art Exhibit of the Great Lakes Exposition, June 26–October 4, 1936, cat. 302.

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Renoir: A Special Exhibition of His Paintings, May 18–September 12, 1937, cat. 15 (ill.).

Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, The Masterpiece of the Month: Two Little Circus Girls, by August Renoir (French, 1841–1919), January 3–31, 1939, no cat.

Paris, Musée de L’Orangerie, De David A Toulouse Lautrec: Chefs–d’Oeuvre des Collections Américaines, April 20–July 3, 1955, cat. 46 (ill.).

Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings by Renoir, February 3–April 1, 1973, cat. 24 (ill.).

Pittsburgh, Carnegie Institute, Celebration: Inaugural Exhibition of the Sarah Scaife Gallery of the Museum of Art, October 26, 1974–January 5, 1975, cat. 7 (ill.).

Tokyo, Seibu Museum of Art, Shikago Bijutsukan Insho-ha ten (The Impressionist Tradition: Masterpieces from The Art Institute of Chicago), October 18–December 17, 1985, cat. 33 (ill.); traveled to Fukuoka, Fukuoka Art Museum, January 5–February 2, 1986; Kyoto, Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, March 4–April 13, 1986.

Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, The New Painting: Impressionism 1874–1886, January 17–April 6, 1986, cat. 134 (ill.); traveled to Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, M. H. de Young Memorial Museum, April 19–July 6, 1986 [San Francisco venue only].

Leningrad [St. Petersburg], Hermitage, Ot Delakrua do Matissa: shedevry frantsuzskoĭ zhivopici XIX-nachala XX veka, iz Muiei︡a Metropoliten v Ni︡u-Ĭorke i Khudozhestvennogo Instituta v Chikago [From Delacroix to Matisse: Great French Paintings From the XIX Century to the Beginning of the XXth Century from the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and the Art Institute of Chicago], March 15–May 16, 1988, cat. 21 (ill.); traveled to Moscow, Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts, May 30–July 30, 1988.

Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago’s Dream, A World’s Treasure: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1893–1993, November 1, 1993–January 9, 1994, no cat. no.

Ottawa, National Gallery of Canada, Renoir’s Portraits: Impressions of an Age, June 27–September 14, 1997, cat. 35 (ill.); Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, October 17, 1997–January 4, 1998; Fort Worth, Texas, Kimbell Art Museum, February 8–April 26, 1998.

Fort Worth, Texas, Kimbell Art Museum, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, June 29–November 2, 2008, cat. 26 (ill.).

New York, Frick Collection, Renoir, Impressionism, and Full–Length Painting, February 7–May 13, 2012, cat. 44 (ill.).

Publication History

Edmond Renoir, “Cinquième exposition de la vie moderne, P.–A. Renoir,” La Vie Moderne 1, 11 (June 19, 1879) p. 175.

Fichtre, “L’Actualité: L’Exposition des peintres independents,” Le Réveil (March 2, 1882), p. 1.

American Art Association, Works in Oil and Pastel by the Impressionists of Paris, exh. cat. (New York: J.J. Little and Co./National Academy of Design, 1886), p. 48, cat. 209.

“French Impressionists,” New York Times (May 28, 1886), p. 5.

Julius Meier-Graefe, Auguste Renoir (Munich: R. Piper, 1911), p. 16; translation (H. Floury, 1912).

Ambroise Vollard, Tableaux, Pastels & Dessins de Pierre-Auguste Renoir, vol. 1 (Paris: Ambroise Vollard, 1918), p. 87, no. 348 (ill.).

Ambroise Vollard, La Vie & L’Oeuvre de Pierre–Auguste Renoir (Paris: L’auteur, 1919), p. 67; translation (Alfred A Knopf, 1925),

Georges Rivière, Renoir et ses amis (Paris: H. Floury, 1921), pp. 145 (ill.), 146.

Art Institute of Chicago, Forty-Third Annual Report For the Year 1921 (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1921), p. 39 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Handbook of Sculpture, Architecture, and Paintings, Part II, Paintings (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1922), p. 69, cat. 847

Art Institute of Chicago, “The Potter Palmer Collection of Paintings,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 16, 3 (May 1922), pp. 37, 38 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, “Accessions and Loans,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 16, 3 (May 1922), p. 47.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Guide to the Paintings in the Permanent Collection (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1925), pp. 66 (ill.), 150, cat. 847.

M.C., “Renoirs in the Institute,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 19, 3 (March 1925), pp. 32, 33 (ill.).

Albert André, Renoir (Paris: Les Éditions G. Crès & Cie, 1928), pl. 36.

Julius Meier-Graefe, Renoir (Leipzig: Klinkhardt & Biermann Verlag, 1929), pp. 29 n. 1, 56, no. 6 (ill.).

Forbes Watson, “The Fogg Museum Celebrates,” The Arts 15, 4 (April, 1929), p. 226 (ill.).

Albert Franz Cochrane, “Fogg Museum Stages Magnificent Exhibition of French Art,” Boston Evening Transcript (March 9, 1929), p. 13.

C.J. Bulliet, “Fogg Museum Joins in Fight on Fog [Pardon!],” Chicago Evening Post (April 16, 1929), pp. 1, 4 (ill.).

James O’Donnell Bennett, “A layman views Art Institute’s rare paintings,” Chicago Daily Tribune (June 7, 1931), p. 8.

Reginald H. Wilenski, French Painting (Boston: Hale, Cushman and Flint, 1931), pp. 262, pl. 107.

Jacques–Émile Blanche, Les Arts Plastiques (Paris: Les Editions de France, 1931), p. 73.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Guide to the Paintings in the Permanent Collection (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1932), pp. 63, (ill.), 168.

Art Institute of Chicago, “The Century of Progress Exhibition of the Fine Arts,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 27, 4 (April–May 1933), p. 67.

Art Institute of Chicago, “The Rearrangement of the Painting Galleries,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 27, 7 (December 1933), p. 115.

J. A., “Exhibitions,” Bulletin of Smith College Museum of Art 14 (May 1933), pp. 13 (ill.), 16.

Smith College Museum of Art, “Accessions and Loans,” Bulletin of Smith College Museum of Art 14 (May 1933), p. 22.

Daniel Catton Rich, “Französische Impressionisten im Art Institute zu Chicago,” Pantheon 11, 3 (March 1933), pp. 72 (ill.), 77.

Daniel Catton Rich, “French Art in Chicago,” Formes 33 (1933), p. 382.

Clarence Joseph Bulliet, Art Masterpieces in a Century of Progress Fine Arts Exhibition at the Art Institute of Chicago, vol. 1 (Chicago: North-Mariano Press, 1933), no. 14 (ill.).

Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler 28 (Leipzig: Seemann, 1934), p. 169.

Albert C. Barnes and Violette de Mazia, The Art of Renoir (New York: Minton, Balch & Co., 1935), pp. 71, 72–74, 89n, 188n, 262, no. 99 (ill.), 451, no. 99.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Brief Illustrated Guide to the Collections (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1935), p. 28 (ill.).

Clarence Joseph Bulliet, The Significant Moderns and their Pictures (New York: Covici, Friede, 1936), pl. 33.

Henry McBride, “The Renoirs of America: An Appreciation of the Metropolitan Museum’s Exhibition,” Art News 35, 31 (May 1, 1937), pp. 60, 68 (ill.), 158.

Lionello Venturi, Les Archives de l’Impressionnisme: Lettres de Renoir, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley et autres. Mémoires de Paul Durand-Ruel. Documents, vol. 2 (New York: Durand-Ruel, 1939), p. 337.

Josephine L. Allen, “Paintings by Renoir,” Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art 32, 5 (May 1937), p. 112.

Art Institute of Chicago, “Exhibitions,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 33, 1 (January 1939), p. 15.

Reginald H. Wilenski, Modern French Painters (New York: Reynal & Hitchcook, 1940), p. 337; reprinted (Faber & Faber, 1944).

Art Institute of Chicago, A Brief Illustrated Guide to the Collections (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1941), p. 34 (ill.).

“Chicago Art Institute,” Life Magazine (September 8, 1941), pp. 54 (ill.), 59 (ill.).

Regina Shoolman and Charles E. Slatkin, The Enjoyment of Art in America: A Survey of the Permanent Collections of Painting, Sculpture, Ceramics and Decorative Arts in American and Canadian Museums, being an Introduction to the Masterpieces of Art from Prehistoric to Modern Times (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1942), p. 557, pl. 541.

Daniel Catton Rich, “Potter Palmer and the Art Development of the Museum,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 37, 6 (November 1943), p. 84 (ill.).

Frederick A. Sweet, “Potter Palmer and the Painting Department,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 37, 6 (November 1943), p. 86.

Michel Drucker, preface by Germain Bazin, Renoir (Paris: Éditions Pierre Tisné, 1944), pp. 55, 185, 201–02, pl. 56; reprinted (Éditions Pierre Tisné, 1955).

"Chicago Perfects its Renoir Group," Art News 44, 16, Part 1 (December 1945), p. 18 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, An Illustrated Guide to the Collections of The Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1945), p. 36.

Hans Huth, “Impressionism Comes to America,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts 29 (1946), pp. 239 n. 22, 240, 241, fig. 15.

Prepared by Helen F. Mackenzie, A Picture Book: Masterpieces of Painting XIX Century in the Collections of the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1946), pp. 1, 21, 22 (ill.), 23.

Art Institute of Chicago, “Notes,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 41, 7 (December 1947), p. 96.

Art Institute of Chicago, An Illustrated Guide to the Collections of The Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1948), p. 33.

Walter Pach, Pierre Auguste Renoir, The Library of Great Painters (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1950), pp. 52–53 (ill.); reprinted (Harry N. Abrams, 1960).

Daniel Catton Rich, “Midwest Art Capital,” Town and Country 105 (March 1951), pp. 72-73 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Masterpieces in the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1952), n.pag. (ill.).

Charles Fabens Kelley, “Chicago: Record Years,” Art News 51, 4 (June–August, 1952), pp. 55 (ill.), 107.

Marcelle Berr de Turique, Renoir (Paris: Éditions Phaidon, 1953), p. 8, pl. 36.

Jean-Louis Vaudoyer, Renoir, Le Grand Art en Livres de Poche (Paris: Flammarion 1953), pl. 11.

Dorothy Bridaham, Renoir in the Art Institute of Chicago (Zurich: Conzett & Huber, 1954), pl. 3.

M.K.R., “An Exhibition for Paris,” The Art Institute of Chicago Quarterly 49, 2 (April 1955), p. 28.

Preface by Theodore Rousseau, “De David a Toulouse-Lautrec dans les Collections et Musées Americains,” Art et Style 34 (1955), n. pag. (ill.).

“Les Expositions A Paris,” Connaissance des Arts 39 (May 15, 1955), p. 77.

Art Institute of Chicago, An Illustrated Guide to the Collections of the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1956), p. 34.

Ishbel Ross, Silhouette in Diamonds: The Life of Mrs. Potter Palmer (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960), p. 155.

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago: A Catalogue of the Picture Collection (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1961), pp. 282 (ill.), 394.

François Fosca, Renoir: L’homme et son oeuvre (Paris: Éditions Aimery Somogy, 1961), pp. 112 (ill.), 118, 281; translation (Prentice-Hall, 1962).

Rodolfo Pallucchini, “L’Art Institute di Chicago,” L’Illustrazione del Medico 33, 218 (February 1966), pp. 14, 15, fig. 7.

Frederick A. Sweet, “Great Chicago Collectors,” Apollo 84 (September 1966), pp. 192, fig. 7, 194.

Charles C Cunningham, Instituto de arte de Chicago, El Mundo de los Museos 2 (Buenos Aires: Editorial Codex, 1967), p. 19.

André Parinaud and Charles C Cunningham, Art Institute of Chicago, Grands Musées 2 (Paris: Hachette-Filipacchi, 1969), p. 11.

Charles C. Cunningham and Satoshi Takahashi, Shikago Bijutsukan (Art Institute of Chicago), Museums of the world 32 (Tokyo: Kodansha, 1970), pp. 51, pl. 37 (detail), 159–60 (ill.).

John Maxon, The Art Institute of Chicago (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1970), pp. 85–86 (ill.); reprinted (Harry N. Abrams, 1977 and Thames and Hudson, 1987).

François Daulte, Auguste Renoir: Catalogue raisonné de l’oeuvre peint, Vol. I, Figures, 1860–1890 (Lausanne: Éditions Durand-Ruel, 1971), pp. 228–29, cat. 297 (ill.).

Elda Fezzi, L'opera completa di Renoir nel periodo impressionista, 1869-1883, Classici dell’arte 59 (Milan: Rizzoli, 1972), pp. 103–04, cat. 333 (ill.); reprinted (Rizzoli Editore, 1981); translation (Flammarion, 1985).

Art Institute of Chicago, “Lecturer’s Choice,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 67, 4 (July–August 1973), p. 11.

Walter Pach, Auguste Renoir: Leben und Werk, trans. Walter Pach (Cologne: Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1976), pp. 78–79, 167, fig. 5.

Anthea Callen, Renoir (London: Oresko Books, 1978), p. 66, no. 46 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, 100 Masterpieces (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1978), pp. 20, 102, pl. 57.

Yomiuri Shimbun Sha, Exposition Renoir, exh. cat. (Tokyo: Isetan Museum of Art/Kyoto Municipal Museum/ Yomiuri Shimbun Sha, 1979), n. pag. (ill.).

J. Patrice Marandel, The Art Institute of Chicago: Favorite Impressionists Paintings (New York: Crown Publishers, 1979), pp. 70–71 (ill.).

Sophie Monneret, l’Impressionnisme et son époque: dictionnaire international illustré, vol. 2 (Paris: Editions Denoël, 1979), p. 175.

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism (New York: Abbeville Press, 1980), p. 269 (ill.).

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism, Tiny Folios (New York: Abbeville Press, 1980), p. [158], pl. 18.

Horst Keller, The Great Book of French Impressionism, Alexis Brown, trans. (New York: Hudson Hills Press, 1980), fig. 122.

Art Institute of Chicago, Pocketguide to the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1983), pp. 25, no. 27 (ill.), 62.

Barbara Ehrlich White, Renoir: His Life, Art, and Letters (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1984), pp. 82–83 (ill.), 165, 192.

Christopher Lloyd, “The Impact of Impressionism,” in Christopher Lloyd and Richard Thomson, Impressionist Drawings from British Public and Private Collections, exh. cat. (Oxford: Phaidon Press and the Arts Council, 1986), pp. 19, 23, fig. 24.

Joel Isaacson, “The Painters Called Impressionists,” in Charles S. Moffett, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, exh. cat. (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1986), pp. 380, 395, 417, cat. 134 (ill.).

Richard R. Brettell, French Impressionists (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1987), pp. 54 (ill.), 55, 119.

Nicholas Wadley, ed., Renoir: A Retrospective (New York: Hugh Lauter Levin Associates/ Macmillan Publishing, 1987), pp. 131, 177, pl. 63.

Selected by James N. Wood and Katharine C. Lee, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1988), pp. 8, 61 (ill.), 65.

Raffaele De Grada, Renoir (Milan: Editoriale Giorgio Mondadori, 1989), p. 59, pl. 37.

Sophie Monneret, Renoir, Profils de l’art (Paris: Chêne, 1989), pp. 82–83, fig. 4.

Edward Lucie–Smith, Impressionist Women (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1989), pp. 137, pl. 124, 139.

Eric Darragon, “Pégase à Fernando. A propos de Cirque et du réalisme de Seurat en 1891,” Revue de l’art 86 (1989), p. 57, n. 68.

Lesley Stevenson, H. de Toulouse Lautrec (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1991), p. 65.

Lesley Stevenson, Renoir (London: Bison Group, 1991), pp. 102–03 (ill.).

Catherine Strasser, Seurat: Cirque pour un monde nouveau (Paris: Adam Biro, 1991), p. 12, ill. 7.

William R. Johnston, “Alfred Sisley and Early Interest in Impressionism in America 1865–1913,” in Alfred Sisley, exh. cat. ed. Mary Anne Stevens (New Haven: Yale University Press and London: Royal Academy of Arts, 1992), p. 66.

Richard Thompson, “Représentations de Montmartre,” in Hayward Gallery and Galeries nationales du Grand Palais, Toulouse–Lautrec, exh. cat. (London: South Bank Centre and Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux, 1992), p. 231.

Anne Distel, Renoir: “Il faut embellir” (Paris: Gallimard/Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1993), p. 59 (ill.); translation (Thames and Hudson, 1995).

Introduction by James N. Wood, Treasures of 19th- and 20th-Century Painting: The Art Institute of Chicago (New York: Abbeville Press, 1993), p. 75 (ill.).

Selected by James N. Wood and Teri J. Edelstein, The Art Institute of Chicago: The Essential Guide (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1993), pp. 156 (ill.), 157.

Art Institute of Chicago, Pocketguide (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1997), pp. 16, no. 25 (ill.), 61.

Neil Harris, Chicago’s Dream, A World’s Treasure: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1893–1993, exh. cat. ed. Teri J. Edelstein (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1993), p. 32, pl. 10.

Gerhard Gruitrooy, Renoir: A Master of Impressionism (New York: Todtri Productions, 1994), pp. 82, 86–87 (detail), 97 (ill.).

Margherita Andreotti, “The Joseph Winterbotham Collection,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 20, 2 (1994), p. 124.

Francesca Castellani, Pierre-Auguste Renoir: La vita e l’opera (Milan: Mondadori, 1996), pp. 124–25 (ill.).

Ruth Berson, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, Documentation, Volume 1. Reviews (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1996), p. 387.

Ruth Berson, ed., The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, Documentation, Volume 2. Exhibited Works (San Francisco: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1996), pp. 212, 232 (ill.).

Karin Sagner-Düchting, Renoir: Paris and the Belle Époque, trans. Fiona Elliott (New York and Munich: Prestel, 1996), pp. 42–43 (ill.).

Douglas W. Druick, Renoir, Artists in Focus (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1997), pp. 2 (detail), 38–41, 72, 85, pl. 4, 109.

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism (New York: Artabras, 1997), pp. 216 (ill.), 248, 391.

Kimbell Art Museum, “Renoir’s Portraits: Impressions of an Age,” Calendar (August 1997–January 1998), p. 15 (ill.).

Selected by James N. Wood, Master Paintings in The Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 1999), pp. 8, 57 (ill.).

Charlotte Gere and Marina Vaizey, Great Women Collectors (London: Philip Wilson Publishers and New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p. 132, 133.

Janet Snyder Matthews and Linda Williams Mansperger, Mrs. Potter Palmer, Legendary Lady of Sarasota, exh. cat. (Osprey, Florida: Gulf Coast Heritage Association, 1999), pp. 8, 130.

Art Institute of Chicago, Shikago Bijutsukan [The Art Institute of Chicago], Museums of the World, 22 (Tokyo: Kodansha, 2000), pp. 8–9 (ill.), 25 (ill.).

Selected by James N. Wood, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2000), pp. 9, 55, 57 (ill.).

Selected by James N. Wood, Treasures from the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and New York: Hudson Hills Press, 2000), pp. 183, 206–07 (ill.).

Gilles Néret, Renoir: Painter of Happiness, 1841–1919 (Cologne: Taschen, 2001), pp. 110–11 (ill.), 130.

John Collins, “Marguerite (Francisca) and Angelina Wartenberg,” in Jill Berk Jiminez, ed., Dictionary of Artist’s Models, (London and Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2001), p. 557–60 (ill.).

John B. Collins, Seeking l’esprit gaulois: Renoir’s Bal du Moulin de la Galette and aspects of French social history and popular culture (Ph.D. diss., McGill University, 2001), pp. 174; fig. 93.

Selected by James N. Wood, The Art Institute of Chicago: The Essential Guide (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2003), pp. 156 (ill.), 157.

Eleanor Dwight, ed., The Letters of Pauline Palmer: A Great Lady of Chicago's First Family (New York: M.T. Train/Scala Books, 2005), pp. 293 (ill.), 295.

Sue Roe, The Private Lives of the Impressionists (London: Chatto & Windus, 2006), p. 262.

Zeev Gourarier, “1874–1963. Fernando et Medrano: artistes de cirque et cirque des artistes,” in Dominique Dupuis-Labbé and Maria Teresa Ocaña, eds., Picasso et le cirque, exh. cat. (Martigny: Fondation Pierre Gianadda, 2006), p. 49, fig. 1, 52.

Huub Beurskens, Ed Wingen, Leo Duppen, et al., Het circus in de beeldende kunst (Haarlem: KcH edities, 2006), fig. 3.

Guy-Patrice Dauberville and Michel Dauberville, Renoir: Catalogue raisonné des tableaux, pastels, dessins et aquarelles, 1858–1881, vol. 1 (Paris: Éditions Bernheim-Jeune, 2007), pp. 292, 294, cat. 251 (ill.).

Anna Green, French Paintings of Childhood and Adolescence, 1848–1886 (Aldershot and Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007), pp. 97, 98, pl. 5.

Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, The Age of Impressionism at the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 14 (ill.), 70–71, cat. 26 (ill.), 129; revised edition (Art Institute of Chicago and Yale University Press, 2010).

Art Institute of Chicago, Pocketguide (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2009), pp. 43, no. 84, 62.

Art Institute of Chicago, The Essential Guide (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago, 2009), p. 218.

Selected by James Cuno, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), pp. 8, 56 (ill.), 62.

Anne Distel, Renoir (Paris: Citadelles & Mazenod, 2009), pp. 165, 239.

Gloria Groom, “Spaces of Modernity,” in Gloria Groom, ed., Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity, exh. cat. (Chicago: Art Institute of Chicago and New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2012), p. 182.

Karen Roseberg, “Soigné Parisians, Fit for a Grand Canvas,” New York Times (February 10, 2012), p. 27.

Ownership History

Deposited by the artist with Durand-Ruel, Paris, April 6, 1881 as “Les Petites acrobats” [Durand-Ruel, Paris, deposit no. 3155]; sold to Durand-Ruel, Paris, May 12, 1882, for 2,000 fr. [Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock no. 2362]; sold to Potter Palmer (died 1902), Chicago, May 11, 1892, for 8,000 fr. [Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock no. 319]; by descent to his widow, Mrs. Potter (Bertha Honoré) Palmer (died 1918); by descent to her sons Honoré Palmer and Potter Palmer, Jr; given to the Art Institute of Chicago, 1922.