conforming to standards, traditions, or conventions promoted by an academy or school of higher learning. During the Impressionist period, the term referred specifically to France’s Academy of Fine Arts, which encouraged students to paint classical or biblical subjects in a highly detailed style. Students trained at the Academy drew from plaster casts, progressing slowly to painting live models in poses, and finally to creating compositions based on classical sources and the work of Old Masters.
Bonaparte, Louis Napoléon (Napoléon III) (1808–1873)
French president from 1848 to 1852 and emperor from 1852 to 1870. He gave France two decades of prosperity under a stable and authoritarian government known as the Second Empire but finally led it to defeat in the Franco-German War (1870–71), which forced many Impressionists to leave Paris.
an acute, infectious, often fatal disease found in India, China, and occasionally elsewhere (such as France during the late 19th century), characterized by profuse diarrhea, vomiting, cramps, and dehydration
the early-20th-century art movement led by Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) and Georges Braque (1882–1963) that used abstract, fragmented shapes to depict several views of the same subject simultaneously, emphasizing the basic geometry or structure of the subject
showing marked attention to style or form rather than the imitation of actual appearances. Formalist art is usually flat and two-dimensional and emphasizes abstract shapes.
Haussmann, George-Eugène, Baron (1809–1891)
French administrator who transformed Paris during the mid-19th century, turning a mass of small streets into a space marked by wide, straight, tree-lined avenues. Haussmann’s city planning also opened up parks, increased the number of streetlights and sidewalks, and gave rise to the sidewalk cafés enjoyed and portrayed by the Impressionists. There were three motives behind the planning effort: to promote industrialization by enabling goods and services to be transported more efficiently, to beautify the city, and to prevent rebellion by eliminating the narrow streets where barricades could be erected.
Impressionism (n)/ Impressionist (adj)
progressive art movement that originated in France in the late 19th century. Impressionist painters wanted to capture the rapidly changing modern world and the fleeting moods of nature. Impressionism relied on optical blending to depict the fluctuations of light and consisted largely of views of everyday middle-class life in the city and countryside of France.
an extended landscape or other scene, often displayed as an unobstructed view in every direction. Panoramas were a popular art form in the 19th century.
scientific method used by artists to represent three-dimensional objects on two-dimensional surfaces. Linear perspective uses vanishing points and orthogonals to make objects seem as if they are receding in space. Some maintain that a crude form of linear perspective was introduced by the Romans, refined by Islamic artists in the middle ages, and rediscovered by Italian architect Filippo Brunelleschi in the 15th century.
Post-Impressionism (n)/ Post-Impressionist (adj)
the French artistic style that followed Impressionism. Such artists as Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec pushed beyond the Impressionist emphasis on the appearance of nature, stressing instead qualities such as emotional expression and the formal structure of underlying objects. Post-Impressionism led to a variety of bold new styles, including innovative uses of color and brushwork that sometimes bordered on abstraction.
official exhibition of art sponsored by the Academy of Fine Arts in France and held almost once every year from the 17th through the 19th centuries. Until challenged by the Impressionist exhibitions beginning in 1874, the Salon was the main venue for artists to exhibit their work, receive recognition, and make sales.