Almade: Probably refers to a Spanish wine, not to be confused with Almaden Vineyards of Madera, California, founded in 1852. Almaden produces quality wine that has been popular since Prohibition; it has become the third or fourth largest vineyard of “premium” wine in the United States.
Cape: See Red Constantian.
Claret: In England this refers to red Bordeaux; elsewhere a generic term for red wine.
Hock: An English term for German wine, sometimes from the Rhine region.
Lisbon: A term used by the British wine trade to designate the sweet fortified and table wines produced near Lisbon.
Marcella: Also known as Marsala. A fortified wine produced in the region surrounding the city of Marsala in Sicily. The English trader John Woodhouse, who discovered this fortified wine in 1773, promoted it in the English market, where closely related wines from Spain and Portugal were already popular. Today it is one of the most common wines used in cooking.
Mountain: Old English name for Malaga wine, a fortified sweet wine from Malaga, Spain. This term is also used in California to designate wines from upland or hillside vineyards.
Noyeau: Also known as Noyau. A French liqueur made from brandy and bitter almonds or apricot kernels, sometimes colored pink.
Red Constantian: Also known as Red Constantia. A red sweet wine produced in the vicinity of Cape Town in South Africa, along the slopes of Table Mountain, from the end of the 17th to the end of 19th century. This was the only great wine ever made in the southern hemisphere, and it was among the most sought-after vintages until it vanished after 1886, mainly due to the outbreak of the phylloxera mite, which destroyed the original Cape vineyards.
While it was produced, Red Constantian was the most prized sweet wine in the world, and it was particularly highly valued by the kings and emperors of Europe. From the Prussian King Frederick the Great, to King George IV of the United Kingdom and King Louis-Philippe of France, most of the rulers of Europe imbibed it. Legend has it that Napoleon Bonaparte, in exile on the isle of Saint Helena (1815–21), requested a glass of Constantia wine on the evening of his death.
Rhenish: A wine from the Rhine River valley in Germany.
Sack: Refers to white fortified wine imported from Spain or the Canary Islands during the 16th and 17th centuries. Sack was probably sweet and resembled cheaper versions of sherry.
Setuval: Also known as Setubal. A fortified Muscat wine from Portugal. It is typically brown in color, like a sherry or tawny port.
Shrub: A drink made from fruit juice, sugar, and a liquor such as rum or brandy.
Vin de Grave: Also known as Vin de Graves. In English usage, refers to white wine, usually a white Bordeaux or claret.
White: A term used since the 13th century to describe wine that is clear, yellow, or pink rather than red.