John Singleton Copley
American, 1738-1815

Daniel Hubbard, 1764

Oil on canvas
127.2 x 100.8 cm (50 1/8 x 39 11/16 in.)
Signed on base of column: "John S. Copley pinx. 1764"
The Art Institute of Chicago Purchase Fund, 1947.27

Daniel Hubbard

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Between 1753 and 1774—when he departed the colonies for England because of the Loyalist sympathies of his wife’s family—John Singleton Copley painted 350 portraits, primarily of Bostonians. Copley received his only formal art training from his stepfather Peter Pelham, an English graphics artist who specialized in mezzotint engraving. Pelham encouraged the aspiring artist to produce his own mezzotints and to learn to draw by copying English prints. By the time Daniel Hubbard (1764) and Mrs. Daniel Hubbard (Mary Greene) (c. 1764) were produced, Copley had established a popular portrait style featuring individualized faces and luxurious fabrics. The poses of his figures derive from mezzotints of fashionable English portraits.

— Permanent collection label

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Loan Exhibition, Feb. 28-?,1883, lent by William Scollay Whitwell.

Worcester Art Museum, Mass., New England Painting, 1700-1775, Feb. 17-Mar. 31, 1943, cat. 35, lent by Mr. and Mrs. Henry D. Tudor.

Art Institute of Chicago, From Colony to Nation, Apr. 21-June 19, 1949, cat. 33.

Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Likeness of America, 1680-1820, July 5-Sept. 4, 1949, cat. 14.

Fort Worth, Amon Carter Museum, The Face of Liberty, Dec. 23, 1975-Feb. 8, 1976, p. 93 (ill.).

Publication History

Frank W. Bayley, A Sketch of the Life and a List of Some of the Works of John Singleton Copley (Boston, 1910).

Frank W. Bayley, Five Colonial Artists of New England (Boston, 1929).

James T. Flexner, John Singleton Copley (Boston, 1948).

B. N. Parker and A.B. Wheeler, John Singleton Copley, American Portraits in Oil, Pastel, and Miniature with Biographical Sketches (Cambridge, Mass., 1938).

Jules David Prown. John Singleton Copley (Cambridge, Mass., 1966), 2 vols.

David Hanks, “American Paintings at the Art Institute of Chicago,” Magazine Antiques (Sept. 1973), pp. 408-17.

James T. Flexner and Linda Bantel Samter, The Face of Liberty: Founders of the United States (New York, 1975).

T.H. Breen, “The Meaning of ‘Likeness’: Portrait-Painting in an Eighteenth-Century Consumer Society,” The Portrait in Eighteenth-Century America (Newark, 1993).

Carrie Rebora and Paul Staiti, John Singleton Copley in America (New York, 1995).

Judith A. Barter et al., American Arts at The Art Institute of Chicago: From Colonial Times to World War I (Art Institute of Chicago, 1998).

Ownership History

Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Hubbard, Boston, from 1764 to 1796; by descent to Mrs. Daniel Hubbard, Boston, from 1796 to 1808; by descent to Henry Hubbard, Boston, from 1808 to 1844; by descent to Mary Greene Hubbard, Boston, from 1844 to 1882; by descent to William Scollay Whitwell, Boston, from 1882 to 1899; by descent to his daughter Mary Hubbard Whitwell, Brookline, Mass, from 1899 to 1908; by descent to her sister, Mrs. William Tudor (Elizabeth Whitwell), Boston, from 1908 to 1929; by descent to her son, Henry Dubois Tudor, Cambridge, Mass., from 1929 to 1947; The Art Institute of Chicago, 1947.