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About This Artwork
Denarius (Coin) Portraying Mark Antony, 42 B.C., issued by Roman Republic, C. Vibius Varus (moneyer)
Diam. 1.9 cm; 3.95 g
Reverse: (C) VIBIVS VARVS
Gift of Martin A. Ryerson, 1922.4854
The purpose of the first portrait coins was to identify the ruler. The front side became a mirror of the sovereign’s self-image. The back was often used to communicate the ruler’s accomplishments or intentions.
The profile portrait was used because it suited the very shallow depth and limited surface of the coin. The tiny images were carved by engravers into bronze dies, one for the front and another for the back. Whereas modern coinage is cast by pouring molten metal into molds, these coins were struck, one by one.
—Permanent collection label
The Art Institute of Chicago, Ruling Families: Imperial Dynasties of the Early Roman Empire 31 B.C. - A.D. 235, Gallery 155 (Coin Case), November 1, 1997 - Nov. 2001.
The Art Institute of Chicago, Power Struggles: Cleopatra's Relatives and Their Rivals, Gallery 155 (Coin Case), Nov. 2001 - 2007.
The Art Institute of Chicago, Of Gods and Glamour: The Mary and Michael Jaharis Galleries of Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Art, Gallery 152, July 2013 - present.
Karen B. Alexander, "From Plaster to Stone: Ancient Art at the Art Institute of Chicago," in Recasting the Past: Collecting and Presenting Antiquities at the Art Institute of Chicago, by Karen Manchester (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2012), p. 29.