About This Artwork

Claude Monet
French, 1840-1926

Stack of Wheat (Snow Effect, Overcast Day), 1890/91

Oil on canvas
66 x 93 cm (26 x 36 5/8 in.)
Inscribed lower right: Claude Monet 91

Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection, 1933.1155

Wildenstein, Claude Monet, biographie et catalogue raisonné, 1979 W.1281, p. 142

This work is featured in the online catalogue Monet Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, the first volume in the Art Institute’s scholarly digital series on the Impressionist circle. The catalogue offers in-depth curatorial and technical entries on 47 artworks by Claude Monet in museum’s collection; entries feature interactive and layered high-resolution imaging, previously unpublished technical photographs, archival materials, and documentation relating to each artwork.


Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Paris, Galeries Durand-Ruel, Exposition d’oeuvres récentes de Claude Monet, May 1891, cat. 9, as Meule. (Effet de neige; temps couvert), Appartient à M. Durand-Ruel.

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Inaugural Exhibition, Jan. 7–Feb. 7, 1915, cat. 255, as The Haystack, Lent by Martin A. Ryerson, Chicago, Ill.

Art Institute of Chicago, “A Century of Progress”: Loan Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture for 1934, June 1–Oct. 31, 1934, cat. 218.

Decatur (Ill.) Art Center, Masterpieces of European and American Art Lent by the Art Institute of Chicago, Mar. 4–25, 1945, cat. 12; Springfield (Ill.) Art Association, Apr. 1945, no cat.

Chicago, Remington Rand, window display, Apr. 14–30, 1952, no cat.

University of Chicago, Lexington Hall, Nov. 17–Dec. 17, 1952, no cat.

Park Forest (Ill.) Art Center, Mar. 25–Apr. 22, 1956, no cat.

Art Institute of Chicago, The Paintings of Claude Monet, Apr. 1–June 15, 1957, no cat. no.

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings by Monet, Mar. 15–May 11, 1975, cat. 86 (ill.).

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, June 28–Sept. 16, 1984, cat. 111 (ill.); Art Institute of Chicago, Oct. 23, 1984–Jan. 6, 1985; Paris, Galeries Nationales d’Exposition, Grand Palais, as L’impressionnisme et le paysage français, Feb. 4–Apr. 22, 1985.

Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), State Hermitage Museum, Ot Delakrua do Matissa: Shedevry frantsuzskoi zhivopisi XIX–nachala XX veka, iz Muzeia Metropoliten v N’iu-Iorke i Khudozhestvennogo Instituta v Chikago [From Delacroix to Matisse: Masterpieces of French Painting of the Nineteenth to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago], Mar. 15–May 16, 1988, cat. 30 (ill.); Moscow, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, May 30–July 30, 1988.

Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Monet in the ’90s: The Series Paintings, Feb. 7–Apr. 29, 1990, cat. 25 (ill.); Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago, May 19–Aug. 12, 1990; and London, Royal Academy of Arts, Sept. 7–Dec. 9, 1990.

Art Institute of Chicago, Claude Monet, 1840–1926, July 22–Nov. 26, 1995, cat. 99 (ill.).

Washington, D.C., Phillips Collection, Impressionists in Winter: Effets de neige, Sept. 19, 1998–Jan. 3, 1999, cat. 23 (ill.); San Francisco, Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco at the Center for the Arts at Yerba Buena Gardens, Jan. 30–May 2, 1999 (Washington only).

Hamburg, Hamburger Kunsthalle, Monets Vermächtnis: Serie—Ordnung und Obsession, Sept. 28, 2001–Jan. 6, 2002, no cat. no. (ill.).

Fort Worth, Tex., Kimbell Museum of Art, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, June 29–Nov. 2, 2008, cat. 78 (ill.).

Publication History

Galeries Durand-Ruel, Exposition Claude Monet, exh. cat. (Galeries Durand-Ruel, 1891), p. 15, cat. 9.

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Catalogue of the Inaugural Exhibition, exh. cat. (Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts, 1915), p. 44, cat. 255.

Gustave Geffroy, Claude Monet: Sa vie, son temps, son oeuvre (G. Crès, 1922), p. 189.

Art Institute of Chicago, “Accessions and Loans,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 16, 3 (May 1922), p. 47.

M. C., “Monets in the Art Institute,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 19, 2 (Feb. 1925), p. 20.

Art Institute of Chicago, Catalogue of “A Century of Progress”: Exhibition of Paintings and Sculpture, 1934, ed. Daniel Catton Rich, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1934), p. 37, cat. 218.

George Slocombe, “Giver of Light,” Coronet 3, 5 (Mar. 1938), p. 23 (ill.).

“Critics of Art Hear Lecture by Dr. Neal,” Decaturian Weekly 42, 12 (Mar. 16, 1945), p. 1.

Decatur Art Center, Masterpieces of European and American Art Lent by the Art Institute of Chicago, exh. cat. (Decatur Art Center, 1945), p. 7, cat. 12.

Oscar Reuterswärd, Monet: En konstnärshistorik (Bonniers, 1948), p. 286.

Art Institute of Chicago, “Catalogue,” Art Institute of Chicago Quarterly 51, 2 (Apr. 1, 1957), p. 33.

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago: A Catalogue of the Picture Collection (Art Institute of Chicago, 1961), p. 320.

J. Patrice Marandel, “Monet in Chicago,” Art Gallery Magazine 18, 6 (Mar. 1975), p. 48 (ill.).

Susan Wise, ed., Paintings by Monet, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1975), pp. 50, pl. 6; 143, cat. 86 (ill.).

Daniel Wildenstein, Claude Monet: Biographie et catalogue raisonné, vol. 3, Peintures, 1887–1898 (Bibliothèque des Arts, 1979), pp. 38; 42, n. 1032; 142; 143, cat. 1281 (ill.).

Robert Gordon and Andrew Forge, Monet (Abrams, 1983), pp. 160 (ill.), 163, 292.

Andrea P. A. Belloli, ed., A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, exh. cat. (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), p. 365.

Richard R. Brettell, “Monet’s Haystacks Reconsidered,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 11, 1 (Autumn 1984), pp. 6; 7; 12; 13, pl. 5; 16–17, fig. 9 (ill.); 21, n. 6, n. 7.

Richard R. Brettell, “The Fields of France,” in A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, ed. Andrea P. A. Belloli, exh. cat. (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), pp. 246; 260; 270, no. 111 (ill.).

Richard R. Brettell, “La campagne française,” in L’impressionnisme et le paysage français, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1985), pp. 261; 282; 290, no. 111 (ill.).

Richard R. Brettell and Scott Schaefer, “Impressionism in Context,” in A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, ed. Andrea P. A. Belloli, exh. cat. (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), pp. 19, 21, 22.

Richard R. Brettell and Scott Schaefer, introduction to L’impressionnisme et le paysage français, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1985), pp. 17, 18, 19.

Sylvie Gache-Patin and Scott Schaefer, “Impressionism and the Sea,” in A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, ed. Andrea P. A. Belloli, exh. cat. (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), p. 284.

Sylvie Gache-Patin and Scott Schaefer, “La mer,” in L’impressionnisme et le paysage français, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1985), p. 304.

Françoise Heilbrun, “Appendix: The Landscape in French Nineteenth-Century Photography,” in A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, ed. Andrea P. A. Belloli, exh. cat. (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), p. 359.

Françoise Heilbrun, “Le paysage dans la photographie française au XIXe siècle et ses rapports avec la peinture du realisme à l’impressionnisme,” in L’impressionnisme et le paysage français, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1985), p. 384.

Scott Schaefer, “The Retreat from Paris,” in A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, ed. Andrea P. A. Belloli, exh. cat. (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), p. 305.

Scott Schaefer, “L’évasion loin de Paris,” in L’impressionnisme et le paysage français, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1985), p. 328.

John House, “Monet and the Genesis of His Series,” in Auckland City Art Gallery, Claude Monet: Painter of Light, exh. cat. (Auckland City Art Gallery/NZI , 1985), pp. 19; 21, fig. 11.

Charles F. Stuckey, ed., Monet: A Retrospective (Hugh Lauter Levin, 1985), p. 163 (ill.).

Richard Shiff, “The End of Impressionism,” in The New Painting: Impressionism, 1874–1886, ed. Charles S. Moffett, exh. cat. (Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, 1986), pp. 64; 66, fig. 5.

Ministry of Culture, SSSR; State Hermitage Museum; Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; and Art Institute of Chicago, Ot Delakrua do Matissa: Shedevry frantsuzskoi zhivopisi XIX–nachala XX veka, iz Muzeia Metropoliten v N’iu-Iorke i Khudozhestvennogo Instituta v Chikago [From Delacroix to Matisse: Masterpieces of French Painting of the Nineteenth to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago], trans. from English by Iu. A. Kleiner and A. A. Zhukov, exh. cat. (Avrora, 1988), pp. 82–83, cat. 30 (ill.).

Grace Seiberling, Monet in London, exh. cat. (High Museum of Art/University of Washington Press, 1988), p. 10 (ill.).

Richard Kendall, ed., Monet by Himself: Paintings, Drawings, Pastels, Letters, trans. Bridget Strevens Romer (Macdonald Orbis, 1989), p. 203 (ill.); 320.

Paul Hayes Tucker, Monet in the ’90s: The Series Paintings, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston/Yale University Press, 1989), pp. 3; 77; 80; 82, pl. 24; 296, cat. 25.

Karin Sagner-Düchting, Claude Monet, 1840–1926: Ein Fest für die Augen (Benedikt Taschen Verlag, 1990), pp. 161–62 (ill.), 170. Translated by Karen Williams Wall, Claude Monet 1840-1926: A Feast for the Eyes(Taschen, 2004), pp. 161–62 (ill.).

Sylvie Patin, Monet: “Un oeil . . . mais, bon Dieu, quel oeil!” (Gallimard/Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1991), pp. 106–07 (ill.), 172. Translated by Anthony Roberts as Monet: The Ultimate Impressionist (Abrams, 1993), pp. 106–07 (ill.); 171.

Anne Rorimer, “The Date Paintings of On Kawara,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 17, 2 (1991), p. 122, fig. 2.

John Sallis, “Monet’s Grainstacks: Shades of Time,” Tema Celeste International Art Magazine 30 (Mar.–Apr. 1991), pp. 63; 64 (ill.); 67, nn. 3, 13.

Gérald Collot, “Blanc comme neige. . .” in Couleurs de neige, exh. cat. (Musée Savoisien/Skira, 1992), p. 16 (ill.).

Sophie Fourny-Dargère, Monet, Profils de l’art (Chêne, 1992), p. 118, fig. 2.

Christoph Heinrich, Claude Monet, 1840–1926 (Benedikt Taschen, 1993), pp. 55, 58 (ill.), 95.

Andrew Forge, Monet, Artists in Focus (Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), pp. 44; 89, pl. 18; 108.

Charles F. Stuckey, with the assistance of Sophia Shaw, Claude Monet, 1840–1926, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Thames & Hudson, 1995), p. 120, cat. 99 (ill.); 220.

Daniel Wildenstein, Monet, or The Triumph of Impressionism, cat. rais., vol. 1 (Taschen/Wildenstein Institute, 1996), pp. 274, cat. 1281 (ill.); 275.

Daniel Wildenstein, Monet: Catalogue raisonné/Werkverzeichnis, vol. 3, Nos. 969–1595 (Taschen/Wildenstein Institute, 1996), pp. 494, cat. 1281 (ill.); 500.

David Spence, Monet: Impressionism (Ticktock, 1997), p. 27.

Matthias Arnold, Claude Monet, Rowohlts Monographien (Rowohlt, 1998), p. 133 (ill.).

Charles S. Moffett, “Effet de neige: ‘Claude Monet and a Few Others. . . ,’” in Charles S. Moffett, Eliza E. Rathbone, Katherine Rothkopf, and Joel Isaacson, Impressionists in Winter: Effets de neige, exh. cat. (Phillips Collection/Philip Wilson, 1998), pp. 20, 22.

Charles S. Moffett, Eliza E. Rathbone, Katherine Rothkopf, and Joel Isaacson, Impressionists in Winter: Effets de neige, exh. cat. (Phillips Collection/Philip Wilson, 1998), pp. 79; 210–11, cat. 23.

Eliza E. Rathbone, “Road by Saint-Siméon Farm in Winter,” in Charles S. Moffett, Eliza E. Rathbone, Katherine Rothkopf, and Joel Isaacson, Impressionists in Winter: Effets de neige, exh. cat. (Phillips Collection/Philip Wilson, 1998), p. 82.

Katherine Rothkopf, “Rue Eugène Moussoir at Moret: Winter,” in Charles S. Moffett, Eliza E. Rathbone, Katherine Rothkopf, and Joel Isaacson, Impressionists in Winter: Effets de neige, exh. cat. (Phillips Collection/Philip Wilson, 1998), p. 188.

Katherine Rothkopf, “Stacks of Wheat (Snow Effect, Overcast Day); Stack of Wheat; Grainstacks: Snow Effect; Stacks of Wheat (Sunset, Snow Effect),” in Charles S. Moffett, Eliza E. Rathbone, Katherine Rothkopf, and Joel Isaacson, Impressionists in Winter: Effets de neige, exh. cat. (Phillips Collection/Philip Wilson, 1998), pp. 120; 121, cat. 23 (ill.); 122.

John Sallis, Shades—Of Painting at the Limit (Indiana University Press, 1998), pl. 6; 26, n. 13; 48.

Art Institute of Chicago, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 2000), p. 133 (ill.).

Christoph Heinrich, “Une série d’effets différents: Monets ‘Getreideschober’ als Hülle für das Licht, die Zeit, das Universum—und ‘die märchenhafte Kraft und Pracht der Malerei,’” in Monets Vermächtnis: Serie—Ordnung und Obsession, ed. Christoph Heinrich, exh. cat. (Hamburger Kunsthalle/Hatje Cantz, 2001), p. 17.

Christoph Heinrich, ed., Monets Vermächtnis: Serie—Ordnung und Obsession, exh. cat. (Hamburger Kunsthalle/Hatje Cantz, 2001), pp. 62 (ill.), 183.

Richard R. Brettell, From Monet to Van Gogh: A History of Impressionism, vol. 2 (Teaching Co., 2002), pp. 161, 167, 183.

Anna Gruetzner Robins, “‘Slabs of Pink and Lumps of Brown’: The Critical Reaction to the Exhibition of a Monet Grainstack Painting in Britain in 1893,” in Monet and French Landscape: Vétheuil and Normandy, ed. Frances Fowle (National Galleries of Scotland, 2006), pp. 159; 168, n. 10, n. 11.

Charles F. Stuckey, “The Predications and Implications of Monet’s Series,” in The Repeating Image: Multiples in French Painting from David to Matisse, ed. Eik Kahng, exh. cat. (Walters Art Museum/Yale University Press, 2007), pp. 85; 87–88, fig. 9.

Eric M. Zafran, “Monet in America,” in Wildenstein and Co., Claude Monet (1840–1926): A Tribute to Daniel Wildenstein and Katia Granoff, exh. cat. (Wildenstein, 2007), p. 112; 143, fig. 62b.

Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Kimbell Art Museum, 2008), pp. 22; 103; 108; 156; 158, cat. 78 (ill.). Simultaneously published as Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, The Age of Impressionism at the Art Institute of Chicago (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 22; 103; 108; 156; 158, cat. 78 (ill.).

Félicie de Maupeou, “Esthétique et littérature artistique,” under the direction of Ségolène Le Men, La bibliothèque de Monet, exh. cat. (Citadelles & Mazenod, 2013), pp. 106–07 (ill.).

“Cat. 30: Stack of Wheat (Snow Effect, Overcast Day), 1890/91” in Monet Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, ed. Gloria Groom and Jill Shaw (Art Institute of Chicago, 2014).

Ownership History

Sold by the artist to Durand-Ruel, Paris, May 9, 1891, for 2,500 francs. [1]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, Paris, to Durand-Ruel, New York, Oct. 25 or Nov. 16, 1892. [2]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, New York, to Martin A. Ryerson, Chicago, Mar. 31, 1893, for $1,500. [3]

Bequeathed by Martin A. Ryerson (died 1932), Chicago, to the Art Institute of Chicago, 1933.

NOTES

[1] The transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock book for 1891–1901 (no. 942, as Les Meules, effet de neige, temps couvert): “Purchased from Monet by DR Paris on 9 May 1891 for 2 500 F / Stock DR Paris no. 942; photo no. 219” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives,to the Art Institute of Chicago, Feb. 5, 2013, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[2] The Paris and New York Durand-Ruel stock books record different dates for the sale. The Paris stock book for 1891–1901 (no. 942, as Les Meules, effet de neige, temps couvert) states: “Sold to DR New York on 25 October 1892.” The New York stock book for 1888–1893 (no. 976, as Meules, effet de neige) states: “Purchased by DR New York on 16 November 1892 asMeules, effet de neige / Stock DR New York no. 976.” See Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives,to the Art Institute of Chicago, Feb. 5, 2013, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[3] The transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, New York, stock book for 1888–93 (no. 976, as Meules, effet de neige): “sold to Martin Ryerson on 31 March 1893 for $ 1500,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, Feb. 5, 2013, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. A purchase receipt on Durand-Ruel letterhead, dated April 12, 1893, includes this painting as one of several sold by Durand-Ruel, New York, to M. A. Ryerson. Photocopy in curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. This purchase receipt is also illustrated in David Spence, Monet: Impressionism (Ticktock, 1997), p. 27. This painting was on loan from Martin A. Ryerson to the Art Institute of Chicago, intermittently, by 1921, according to Museum Registration department artists sheets, on file in Museum Registration, Art Institute of Chicago.




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