About This Artwork

Rogier van der Weyden and Workshop
Netherlandish, c. 1399–1464

Portrait of Jean Gros, 1460/64

Oil on panel
15 3/16 x 11 3/8 in. (38.5 x 28.8 cm); painted surface: 14 3/8 x 10 5/8 in. (36.5 x 27 cm); reverse: 15 3/8 x 11 3/8 in. (39 x 28.8 cm); reverse painted surface: 14 1/2 x 10 1/2 in. (36.8 x 26.7 cm)
Inscribed: Reverse: coat of arms of Jean Gros,1 GRACES . A DIEV. (on banderole), JG (flanking escutcheon)

Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection, 1933.1051a

This portrait is half of a folding diptych, a type of private devotional work with origins in Italo-Byzantine icons and 14th-century court art that was given new vitality by Rogier van der Weyden in the mid-15th century. Van der Weyden, who worked in Tournai and later in Brussels, made such diptychs,as well as independent portraits for patrons at the highest level of the Burgundian court in the decade before his death in 1464. The subject of this portrait—identifiable through his coat of arms, personal motto, and the initials painted on the back of the panel—is Jean Gros (c. 1430–1484), an ambitious administrator in the service of Charles, the future duke of Burgundy. In commissioning a personal diptych, Gros was undoubtedly displaying his ambition and his close associations with the court.

— Permanent collection label

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Bruges, Grande Salle des Halles, Tableaux de l’ancienne école néerlandaise, 1867, no. 19.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Century of Progress, 1933, no. 55.

Art Institute of Chicago, A Century of Progress, 1934, no. 128.

Musée Communal de Bruxelles, Maison du Roi, Rogier van der Weyden—Rogier de le
Pasture, 1979, no. 16.

Washington, D.C., National Gallery of Art, and Antwerp, Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten, Prayers and Portraits: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych, 2006–07, no. 37.

The Art Institute of Chicago, New Light on Old Masters: Research on Northern European and Spanish Paintings before 1600 in the Art Institute, 26 June—14 September 2008, no cat.

M, Leuven, Belgium, Rogier van der Weyden 1400-1464: Master of Passions, September 20- December 6, 2009.

Publication History

W. H. James Weale, Belgium, Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne, London,1859, p. 164.

Emile Van den Bussche, “Museum Flandrense I:Le Cabinet du docteur De Meyer, à Bruges,” La Flandre: Revue des monuments d’histoire et d’antiquités (1875), pp. 189–90.

Eduard Firmenich-Richartz, “Hugo van der Goes,” Zeitschrift für christliche Kunst 10 (1897), p. 378.

Eduard Firmenich-Richartz, “Roger van der Weyden, der Meister von Flémalle: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der vlämischen Malerschule,” Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst 10 (1898–99), p. 143.

Max J. Friedländer, Ausstellung von Kunstwerken des Mittelalters und der Renaissance aus Berliner Privatbesitz veranstaltet von der Kunstgeschichtlichen Gesellschaft, 20. Mai bis 3. Juli 1898, Berlin, 1899, p. 7.

Wilhelm von Bode, Gemäldesammlung des Herrn Rudolf Kann in Paris, Vienna, 1900, pp. xxviii–xxix, pl. 84.

Émile Michel, “La Galerie de M. Rodolphe Kann,” Gazette des Beaux Arts, 3rd ser., 25 (1901), p. 498.

Auguste Marguillier, “La Collection de M. Rodolphe Kann,” Les Arts, no. 13 (1903), p. 3 (ill.).

Seymour de Ricci, “Un Groupe d’oeuvres de Roger van der Weyden,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 3rd ser., 38 (1907), pp. 185–88 (ill.).

Charles Sedelmeyer, Catalogue of the Rodolphe Kann Collection, Paris, 1907, vol. 1, p. xx, vol. 2, p. 15, no. 110 (ill.).

C. J. Holmes, “Recent Acquisitions by Mrs. C. P. Huntington from the Kann Collection,” Burlington Magazine 12 (1908), p. 205.

Ferdinand Laban, “Ein neuer Roger, Begleitworte zu seiner Veröffentlichung,” Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst, n.s., 19 (1908), pp. 58, 60 (ill.).

Marcel Nicolle, “La Collection Rodolphe Kann,” La Revue de l’art ancien et moderne
23 (1908), p. 192.

Connoisseur 24 (1909), p. 69 (color ill.).

Friedrich Winkler, Der Meister von Flémalle und Rogier van der Weyden, Strasbourg, 1913, p. 174.

The Art Institute of Chicago, General Catalogue of Paintings, Sculpture, and Other Objects in the Museum, 1914, p. 209, no. 2099.

“Loan Collections,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 7 (1914), p. 38 (ill.).

The Art Institute of Chicago, Handbook of Sculpture, Architecture, Paintings, and Drawings, vol. 2, August 1920, p. 64.

Martin Conway, The Van Eycks and Their Followers, London, 1921, p. 148.

Max J. Friedländer, Von Eyck bis Bruegel: Studien zur Geschichte der niederländischen Malerei, Berlin, 1921, p. 185.

Max J. Friedländer, “The Pictures of Rogier van der Weyden in America,” Art in America 9 (1921), pp. 62, 65, fig. 2.

The Art Institute of Chicago, Handbook of Sculpture, Architecture, and Paintings, May 1922, p. 74.

Friedrich Winkler, Le Valère Maxime de Leipzig avec une introduction sur les commencements de la peinture de genre aux Pays-Bas, Leipzig, 1922, pp. 12–13 (ill.).

G[eorges] Hulin de Loo, “Diptychs by Rogier van der Weyden,” Burlington Magazine 43 (1923), p. 54; 44 (1924), pp. 185–89, pl. 2D.

Max J. Friedländer, Die altniederländische Malerei, vol. 2, Berlin,1924, pp. 37, 40–43, 101, no. 28, pl. 25; rev. English ed., Early Netherlandish Painting, Brussels and Leiden, 1967, pp. 24, 26–27, 66, no. 28, pl. 51.

Georges Hulin de Loo, “A Mysterious Our Lady by Dieric Bouts,” Burlington Magazine 45 (1924), p. 56.

Friedrich Winkler, Die altniederländische Malerei: Die Malerei in Belgien und Holland von 1400–1600, Berlin, 1924, pp. 84, 86–87.

The Art Institute of Chicago, A Guide to the Paintings in the Permanent Collection, 1925, p. 162, no. 2088.

Rose Mary Fischkin, “Martin A. Ryerson Collection of Paintings and Sculpture, XIII to XVII Century, Loaned to The Art Institute of Chicago,” unpub. MS, 1926, Ryerson Library, The Art Institute of Chicago, pp. 70–72, no. 2088.

Wilhelm Stein, “Die Bildnisse von Roger van der Weyden,” Jahrbuch der preussischen Kunstsammlungen 47 (1926), pp. 18, 31–32.

Martin Conway, ed., Catalogue of the Loan Exhibition of Flemish and Belgian Art, Burlington House, London, 1927: A Memorial Volume, exh. cat., London, Burlington House, 1927, p. 19.

Marguerite Devigne, “Notes sur l’exposition d’art flamand et belge à Londres, I,” Oud Holland 44 (1927), p. 72.

Flemish and Belgian Art, 1300–1900, exh. cat., London, Royal Academy of Arts, 1927, p. 179, under no. 38.

G[eorges] Hulin de Loo and Édouard Michel, Early Flemish Paintings in the Renders Collection at Bruges: Exhibited at the Belgian Exhibition, Burlington House, January, 1927, London, 1927, pp. 59–61.

H. Fierens-Gevaert, Histoire de la peinture flamande des origines à la fin du XVe siècle, vol. 2, Paris and Brussels, 1928, p. 60, fig. 84.

Jules Destrée, Roger de la Pasture–van der Weyden, Paris and Brussels, 1930, p. 117, pl. 38.

J. P. Meurgey, Les Principaux Manuscrits à peintures du Musée Condé à Chantilly, Paris, 1930, pp. 171–72.

Émile Renders, La Solution du problème van der Weyden—Flémalle—Campin, vol. 2, Bruges, 1931, p. 51, pl. 22D.

Édouard Michel, review of Renders 1931, in La Revue de l’art ancien et moderne 60 (1931), pp. 124–25 (ill.).

The Art Institute of Chicago, A Guide to the Paintings in the Permanent Collection, 1932, p. 183, no. 429.13.

“Ryerson Makes Princely Bequest to the Art Institute of Chicago,” Art Digest 6, 20 (1932), p. 3 (ill.).

Alfred M. Frankfurter, “Art in the Century of Progress,” Fine Arts 20, 2 (1933) , pp. 21 (ill.), 60.

“The Rearrangement of the Painting Galleries,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 27 (1933), p. 114.

Daniel Catton Rich, “Die Ausstellung ‘Fünf Jahrhunderte der Frühmalerei in Chicago,’” Pantheon 6 (1933), p. 376.

Daniel Catton Rich, “The Paintings of Martin A. Ryerson,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 27 (1933), pp. 11–13.

“Report for the Year 1933,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 38 (1934), p. 22 (ill.).

Hans Wolfgang Singer, Neuer Bildniskatalog, vol. 2, Leipzig, 1937, p. 183.

G[eorges] Hulin de Loo, “Van der Weyden,” in Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres, et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Biographie nationale, vol. 27, Brussels, 1938, col. 239.

Wolfgang Schöne, Dieric Bouts und seine Schule, Berlin and Leipzig, 1938, p. 61.

Ernst Kantorowicz, “The Este Portrait by Rogier van der Weyden,” Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 3 (1939–40), p. 167.

Duveen Pictures in Public Collections in America, New York, 1941, n.pag., no. 171 (ill.).

W[illem] Vogelsang, Rogier van der Weyden, Amsterdam, [1941], pp. 52 (ill.), 54, 56.

F[riedrich] Winkler, “Rogier van der Weyden,” in Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, vol. 35, Leipzig, 1942, pp. 471, 475.

An American Correspondent, “Flemish and Dutch Paintings in the Ryerson Collection,” Connoisseur 119 (1947), pp. 46–47, fig. 2.

Theodor Musper, Untersuchungen zu Rogier van der Weyden und Jan van Eyck, Stuttgart, 1948, p. 24.

Hermann Beenken, Rogier van der Weyden, Munich, 1951, pp. 70–71, 96, fig. 97.

Aline B. Louchheim, “A New Yorker Visits the Art Institute,” Art Institute of Chicago Quarterly 46 (1952), pp. 23–24 (ill.).

Erwin Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting: Its Origins and Character, Cambridge, Mass., 1953, pp. 295–96, 480, fig. 369.

L. Ninane, “Un Calvaire sur fond or de l’ancienne collection E. Renders: Peut-il être attribué à un maître italien de l’école d’Avignon?” Revue belge d’archéologie et d’histoire de l’art 23 (1954), p. 61.

John Bartier, Légistes et gens de finances au XVe siècle, Brussels, 1955, p. 380. pl. 4.

Ruth Massey Tovell, Roger van der Weyden and the Flémalle Enigma, Toronto, 1955, pp. 31–32, fig. 54.

The Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings in The Art Institute of Chicago: A Catalogue of the Picture Collection, 1961, pp. 147 (ill.), 482–83.

J[acqueline] F[olie], in Hommage à Roger de le Pasture–Van der Weyden, exh. cat., Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Tournai, 1964, nos. 4, 21.

Frederick A. Sweet, “Great Chicago Collectors,” Apollo 84 (1966), p. 198, fig. 23.

Charles D. Cuttler, Northern Painting from Pucelle to Bruegel, New York, 1968, p. 127.

Margaret Whinney, Early Flemish Painting, London, 1968, pp. 65–66.

John Bartier, Charles le Témémaire, Brussels, 1970, pp. 96–97 (ill.).

Dirk de Vos, “De Madonna-en-Kindtypologie bij Rogier van der Weyden,” Jahrbuch der Berliner Museen, n.s., 13 (1971), pp. 104, 129.

Martin Davies, Rogier van der Weyden, London, 1972, pp. 210, 235–36, pl. 92.

Jan Rotsaert, “Het hoogaltaar in de Sint-Jacobskerk to Brugge,” Het Bruggse Ommeland 15 (1975), p. 124.

Jane B. Friedman, “An Iconological Examination of the Half-Length Devotional Portrait Diptych in the Netherlands, 1460–1530,” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles, 1977, pp. 97–98, 195–96, fig. 22.

Lorne Campbell, “L’Art du portrait dans l’oeuvre de Van der Weyden,” in 1979 exhibition catalogue.

Artur, Graf Strachwitz, “Brüssels offizieller Stadtmaler,” Weltkunst 49 (1979), pp. 3147, 3149 (ill.).

Jeffrey Chipps Smith, “The Artistic Patronage of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy (1419–1467),” Ph.D. diss., Columbia University, 1979, p. 240.

Lorne Campbell, Van der Weyden, New York, 1980, pp. 9–10, 73, no. 46 (ill.).

Alistair Smith, review of Brussels1979 exhibition catalogue, in Burlington Magazine 122 (1980), p. 91.

Larry Silver, “Early Northern European Paintings,” Saint Louis Art Museum Bulletin, n.s., 16, 3 (1982), p. 5.

C[atheline] Périer-d’Ieteren, “L’Annonciation du Louvre et la Vierge de Houston: sont-elles les oeuvres autographes de Rogier van der Weyden?” Annales d’histoire de l’art et d’archéologie de l’Université Libre de Bruxelles 4 (1982), pp. 19, 22, 24.

Guy Bauman, “Early Flemish Portraits,” Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 43, (1986), p. 50, fig. 37.

W. Rombauts, Het oud archief van de kerkfabriek van Sint Jacob te Brugge (XIIIde–XIXde eeuw), Brussels, 1986, pp. 13, 21.

Larry Silver, “The ‘Gothic’ Gossaert: Na tive and Traditional Elements in a Mabuse Madonna,” Pantheon 45 (1987), p. 61, fig. 10.

Alarich Rooch, Stifterbilder in Flandern und Brabant: Stadtbürgerliche Selbstdarstellung in der sakralen Malerei des 15. Jahrhunderts, Essen, 1988, pp. 210–11, 330–31, fig. 25.

Micheline Comblen-Sonkes, Les Musées de l’Institut de France, Corpus de la peinture des anciens Pays-Bas méridionaux au quinzième siècle 15, Brussels, 1988, p. 62.

Jeltje Dijkstra, “Origineel en kopie: Een onderzoek naar de navolging van de Meester van Flémalle en Rogier van der Weyden,” Ph.D. diss., University of Amsterdam, 1990, p. 54.

Angelica Dülberg, Privatporträts: Geschichte und Ikonologie einer Gattung im 15. und 16. Jahrhundert, Berlin, 1990, pp. 67–69, 132, 223, figs. 102– 03.

Craig Harbison, Jan van Eyck: The Play of Realism, London, 1991, p. 119, fig. 77.

Maximiliaan P. J. Martens, “Artistic Patronage in Bruges Institutions, ca. 1440–1482,” Ph.D. diss., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1992, p. 287.

Guy Bauman and Walter A. Liedtke, Flemish Paintings in America: A Survey of Early Netherlandish and Flemish Paintings in the Public Collections of North America, Antwerp, 1992 , p. 374, no. 493 (ill.).

Hermann Kamp, Memoria und Selbstdarstellung: Die Stiftungen des burgundischen Kanzlers Rolin, Sigmaringen, 1993, pp. 153, 257–58.

Dirk de Vos, Hans Memling, exh. cat., Bruges, Groeningemuseum, 1994, p. 17.

Dirk de Vos, Hans Memling: The Complete Works, Antwerp and Ghent, 1994, p. 366.

Maximiliaan P. J. Martens, “La Clientèle du peintre,” in Les Primitifs Flamands et leur temps, ed. Brigitte de Patoul and Roger van Schoute, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1994, pp. 152–53 (ill.).

Jellie Dijkstra, “Rogier van der Weyden,” in Les Primitifs Flamands et leur temps, ed. Brigitte de Patoul and Roger van Schoute, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1994, p. 357.

Françoise Debaisieux, Caen, Musée des Beaux-Arts: Peintures des écoles étrangères, Paris, 1994, pl. 331.

Bernhard Ridderbos, in “Om iets te weten van de oude meesters”: De Vlaamse primitieven; Herontdekking, waardering en onderzoek, ed. Bernhard Ridderbos and Henk van Veen, Nijmegen, 1995, fig. 25.

Junko Ninagawa, “The Half-Length Devotional Portrait Diptychs by Rogier van der Weyden,” Aesthetics (Japanese Society for Aesthetics) 7 (1996), pp. 84, 87–89, fig. 6.

Cyriel Stroo and Pascale Syfer-d’Olne, The Flemish Primitives: Catalogue of Early Netherlandish Painting in the Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium, vol. 1, Brussels, 1996, p. 129.

Lorne Campbell, “Roger van der Weyden,” in Dictionary of Art, vol. 23, 1996, p. 123.

Bodo Brinkmann, Die flämische Buchmalerei am Ende des Burgunderreichs: Der Meister der Dresdener Gebetbuches und die Miniaturisten seiner Zeit, Turnhout, 1997, pp. 73–74, fig. 19.

Catherine A. Metzger and Michael Palmer, “The Washington Portrait of a Lady by Rogier van der Weyden Reconsidered in Light of Recent Investigations,” Painting Techniques, History, Materials, and Studio Practice: Contributions to the Dublin Congress, 7–11 September 1998, ed. Ashok Roy and Perry Smith, London, 1998, p. 94.

Albert Châtelet, Rogier van der Weyden, Milan, 1999, pp. 20–21, 70–71 (ill.), 139.

Albert Châtelet, Rogier van der Weyden: Problèmes de la vie et de l’oeuvre, Strasbourg, 1999, pp. 151–53.

Dirk de Vos, Rogier van der Weyden: The Complete Works, Antwerp, 1999, pp. 111–12, 134, 298–99, 301 (ill.), 305, no. 25, figs. 156–57.

Elisabeth Dhanens and Jellie Dijkstra, Rogier de la Pasture Van der Weyden: Introduction à l’oeuvre, relecture des sources, Tournai, 1999, pp. 51, 192, fig. 42.

Stephan Kemperdick, Rogier van der Weyden, 1399–1464, Cologne, 1999, pp. 86, 105, 109, fig. 109.

D[aniel] H[ess] in Spiegel der Seligkeit. Privates Bild und Frömmigkeit im Spätmittelalter, exhib. cat. Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg, 2000, p. 248, under no. 74.

Serge Le Bailly de Tilleghem, “Quelques Jalons pour l’histoire de la Madone Renders,” in Postprints of the colloquium Le Dessin sous-jacent dans la peinture XIII, Louvain-la-Neuve, 2001, p. 4, fig. 2.

Hélène Verougstraete and Roger van Schoute, “La Madone Renders et sa restauration
par Joseph van der Venken (Anvers 1872–Etterbeek 1964),” in Postprints of the colloquium Le Dessin sous-jacent dans la peinture XIII, Louvain-la-Neuve, 2001, pp. 7, 10–11, 14–15, fig. 5.

Susan Urbach, “An Unknown Portrait after Rogier van der Weyden,” in Als Ich Can:
Liber amicorum in memory of Professor Dr. Maurits Smeyers, ed. Bert Cardon et al., Paris, Leuven, and Dudley, Mass., 2002, fig. 3 (stripped state).

Dominique Vanwijnsberghe, “L’Identification du portrait ‘Froimont’ de Rogier van der Weyden: Perspectives nouvelles sur les liens du peintre avec le milieu hainuyer,” Revue de l’art, no. 139 (2003), p. 29.

Till-Holger Borchert, "Collecting Early Netherlandish Paintings in Europe and the United States" in Early Netherlandish Paintings: Rediscovery, Reception, and Research, ed. Bernhard Ridderbos, Anne van Buren and Henk van Veen (Amsterdam, 2005), p. 212.

Andrea Pearson, Envisioning Gender in Burgundian Devotional Art, 1350–1530: Experience, Authority, Resistance, Aldershot and Burlington, Vt., 2005, pp. 20, 85, 125,
196, no. 6, fig. 28.

Robert Suckale, “Rogier van der Weydens Werkstatt: Zwei Fallbeispiele,” in Tributes in Honor of James H. Marrow: Studies in Painting and Manuscript Illumination of the
Late Middle Ages and Northern Renaissance, ed. Jeffrey F. Hamburger and Anne S. Korteweg, London and Turnhout, 2006, pp. 489–93, fig. 2.

Maximiliaan P. J. Martens, “Some Reflections on the Social Function of Diptychs,” in Essays in Context: Unfolding the Netherlandish Diptych, ed. John Hand and Ron Spronk, Cambridge, Mass., New Haven, and London, 2006, pp. 85–88, fig. 1.

Stephan Kemperdick, "The Flémalle - Campin -Van der Weyden Problem: Still Existing" in Campin in Context: Peinture et société dans la vallée de l'Escaut à l'époque de Robert Campin 1375-1445, ed. Ludovic Nys and Dominique Vanwijnsberghe (Valenciennes, Brussels, and Tournai, 2007), p. 12.

Martha Wolff in Martha Wolff et al., Northern European and Spanish Paintings before 1600 in the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, 2008, pp. 302-10, ill.

Cathy Metzger and Griet Steyaert, "Painting, a Distinct Profession" in Rogier van der Weyden 1400-1464: Master of Passions, exhib. cat., M, Leuven, 2009, pp. 162-5, 167, 177, n. 8.

Ownership History

Dr. Isaac Joseph de Meyer (d. 1861), Bruges, by 1859 [Weale 1859]; his son, Dr. August de Meyer, Bruges. Sold to Rodolphe Kann (d. 1905), Paris, by 1899 [according to Friedländer 1899]; his heirs; sold to Duveen, Paris and New York, 1907 [information supplied by Guy Bauman]; sold to Dowdeswell and Dowdeswell, London, Feb. 1912 [Kleinberger stock card, Department of European Painting, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York]; sold to Kleinberger, Paris and New York, Mar. 1, 1912 [Kleinberger stock card cited above]; sold to Benjamin Altman, New York, July 3, 1912; bought back by Kleinberger, Nov. 16, 1912 [Kleinberger stock card]; sold to Martin A. Ryerson (d. 1932), Chicago, June 20, 1913 [bill of sale, Art Institute Archives]; on loan to the Art Institute from 1913; bequeathed to the Art Institute, 1933.




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