About This Artwork

Claude Monet
French, 1840-1926

Stacks of Wheat (End of Day, Autumn), 1890/91

Oil on canvas
65.8 x 101 cm (27 7/8 x 39 3/4 in.)
Inscribed lower left: Claude Monet 91

Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Larned Coburn Memorial Collection, 1933.444

Wildenstein, Claude Monet, biographie et catalogue raisonné, 1979 no. 1270, p. 138


The monumental stacks that Claude Monet depicted in his series Stacks of Wheat rose fifteen to twenty feet and stood just outside the artist’s farmhouse at Giverny. Through 1890 and 1891, he worked on this series both in the field, painting simultaneously at several easels, and in the studio, refining pictorial harmonies. In May 1891, Monet hung fifteen of these canvases next to each other in one small room in the Galerie Durand-Ruel in Paris. An unprecedented critical and financial success, the exhibition marked a breakthrough in Monet’s career, as well as in the history of French art. In this view, and in nearly all of the autumn views in the series, the conical tops of the stacks break the horizon and push into the sky. But in most of the winter views, which constitute the core of the series, the stacks seem wrapped by bands of hill and field, as if bedded down for the season. For Monet, the stack was a resonant symbol of sustenance and survival. He followed this group with further series depicting poplars, the facade of Rouen Cathedral, and, later, his own garden at Giverny. The Art Institute has the largest group of Monet’s Stacks of Wheat in the world.

— Entry, Essential Guide, 2009, p. 227.

This work is featured in the online catalogue Monet Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, the first volume in the Art Institute’s scholarly digital series on the Impressionist circle. The catalogue offers in-depth curatorial and technical entries on 47 artworks by Claude Monet in the museum’s collection; entries feature interactive and layered high-resolution imaging, previously unpublished technical photographs, archival materials, and documentation relating to each artwork.

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Art Institute of Chicago, Exhibition of the Mrs. L. L. Coburn Collection: Modern Paintings and Watercolors, Apr. 6–Oct. 9, 1932, cat. 24.

Toledo (Ohio) Museum of Art, Artists Unappreciated in Their Day, Nov. 5–Dec. 10, 1939, cat. 16 (ill.).

Seattle Art Museum, Volunteer Park, Exhibition Monet and Pissarro, Nov. 21, 1944–Jan. 24, 1945, no cat.

Englewood (Ill.) High School, Feb. 6–Mar. 6, 1945, no cat.

Art Institute of Chicago, The Paintings of Claude Monet, Apr. 1–June 15, 1957, no cat. no.

New York, Museum of Modern Art, Claude Monet: Seasons and Moments, Mar. 9–May 15, 1960, cat. 48 (ill.); Los Angeles County Museum of Art, June 14–Aug. 7, 1960.

Iowa City, University of Iowa Gallery of Art, Impressionism and Its Roots, Nov. 8–Dec. 6, 1964, cat. 35 (ill.).

Pasadena (Calif.) Art Museum (sponsored by the Art Alliance), Serial Imagery, Sept. 17–Oct. 27, 1968, cat. 1; Seattle, Henry Art Gallery, University of Washington, Nov. 17–Dec. 22, 1968; Santa Barbara (Calif.) Museum of Art, Jan. 25–Feb. 23, 1969 (Seattle only).

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings by Monet, Mar. 15–May 11, 1975, cat. 85 (ill.).

New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Monet’s Years at Giverny: Beyond Impressionism, Apr. 19–July 9, 1978, cat. 15 (ill.); Saint Louis Art Museum, Aug. 1–Oct. 8, 1978.

Los Angeles County Museum of Art, A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, June 28–Sept. 16, 1984, cat. 105 (ill.); Art Institute of Chicago, Oct. 23, 1984–Jan. 6, 1985; Paris, Galeries Nationales d’Exposition, Grand Palais, as L’impressionnisme et le paysage français, Feb. 4–Apr. 22, 1985.

Art Institute of Chicago, The Art of the Edge: European Frames, 1300–1900, Oct. 17–Dec. 14, 1986, not in cat.

Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg), State Hermitage Museum, Ot Delakrua do Matissa: Shedevry frantsuzskoi zhivopisi XIX–nachala XX veka, iz Muzeia Metropoliten v N’iu-Iorke i Khudozhestvennogo Instituta v Chikago [From Delacroix to Matisse: Masterpieces of French Painting of the Nineteenth to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago], Mar. 15–May 16, 1988, cat. 31 (ill.); Moscow, Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts, May 30–July 30, 1988.

Boston, Museum of Fine Arts, Monet in the ’90s: The Series Paintings, Feb. 7–Apr. 29, 1990, cat. 18 (ill.); Art Institute of Chicago, May 19–Aug. 12, 1990; London, Royal Academy of Arts, Sept. 7–Dec. 9, 1990 (Boston and Chicago only).

Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago’s Dream, a World’s Treasure: The Art Institute of Chicago, 1893–1993, Nov. 1–Jan. 9, 1994, not in cat.

Art Institute of Chicago, Claude Monet, 1840–1926, July 22–Nov. 26, 1995, cat. 98 (ill.).

Baltimore Museum of Art, In Monet’s Light: Theodore Robinson at Giverny, Oct. 17, 2004–Jan. 9, 2005, no cat. no. (ill.); Phoenix Museum of Art, Feb. 6–May 8, 2005; Hartford, Conn., Wadsworth Atheneum, June 4–Sept. 4, 2005.

Fort Worth, Tex., Kimbell Museum of Art, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, June 29–Nov. 2, 2008, cat. 76 (ill.).

Sydney, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Paths to Abstraction 1867–1917, June 26–Sept. 19, 2010, no cat. no. (ill.).

Publication History

Art Institute of Chicago, Exhibition of the Mrs. L. L. Coburn Collection: Modern Paintings and Watercolors, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1932), pp. 19–20, cat. 24.

Daniel Catton Rich, “The Bequest of Mrs. L. L. Coburn,” Bulletin of the Art Institute of Chicago 26, 6 (Nov. 1932), p. 66.

Toledo Museum of Art, Catalogue: Artists Unappreciated in their Day, exh. cat. (Toledo Museum of Art, 1939), pp. 2; 27, cat. 16 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, “Catalogue,” Art Institute of Chicago Quarterly 51, 2 (Apr. 1, 1957), p. 33.

William C. Seitz, Claude Monet: Seasons and Moments, exh. cat. (Museum of Modern Art, New York/Los Angeles County Museum of Art/Doubleday, 1960), pp. 25 (ill.); 61, cat. 48.

Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago: A Catalogue of the Picture Collection (Art Institute of Chicago, 1961), p. 321.

John Rewald, The History of Impressionism, rev. ed. (Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1961), p. 563 (ill.).

Frank Seiberling, “A Guide to the Exhibition,” in University of Iowa Gallery of Art, Impressionism and Its Roots, exh. cat. (University of Iowa Gallery of Art, 1964), p. 7.

University of Iowa Gallery of Art, Impressionism and Its Roots, exh. cat. (University of Iowa Gallery of Art, 1964), pp. 40–41, cat. 35 (ill.).

Katharine Kuh, Break-up: The Core of Modern Art (New York Graphic Society, 1965), pp. 16–18, pl. 2; 134.

John Coplans, Serial Imagery, exh. cat. (Pasadena Art Museum, 1968), p. 139, cat. 1.

Grace Seiberling, “The Evolution of an Impressionist,” in Paintings by Monet, ed. Susan Wise, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1975), pp. 32, 33.

Susan Wise, ed., Paintings by Monet, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1975), p. 142, cat. 85 (ill.).

Metropolitan Museum of Art, Monet’s Years at Giverny: Beyond Impressionism, exh. cat. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1978), pp. 58, cat. 15 (ill.); 156.

Daniel Wildenstein, “Monet’s Giverny,” in Metropolitan Museum of Art, Monet’s Years at Giverny: Beyond Impressionism, exh. cat. (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1978), p. 21.

Daniel Wildenstein, Claude Monet: Biographie et catalogue raisonné, vol. 3, Peintures, 1887–1898 (Bibliothèque des Arts, 1979), pp. 38; 138; 139, cat. 1270 (ill.).

Grace Seiberling, Monet’s Series (Garland, 1981), pp. 97; 357, no. 14; 421, fig. 13.

J. Patrice Marandel, The Art Institute of Chicago: Favorite Impressionist Paintings (Cross River, 1979), pp. 60–61 (ill.).

Diane Kelder, The Great Book of French Impressionism (Abbeville, 1980), pp. 183, 213 (ill.), 437.

Richard R. Brettell, “Monet’s Haystacks Reconsidered,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 11, 1 (Fall 1984), pp. 6; 12–13, pl. 4; 21, nn. 6, 7, 17, 20.

Richard R. Brettell, “The Fields of France,” in A Day in the Country: Impressionism and the French Landscape, ed. Andrea P. A. Belloli, exh. cat. (Los Angeles County Museum of Art, 1984), pp. 260; 262; 264, cat. 105 (ill.); 364.

Richard R. Brettell, “La campagne française,” in Réunion des Musées Nationaux, L’impressionnisme et le paysage français, exh. cat. (Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1985), pp. 282–84, cat. 105 (ill.); 285–91.

John House, “Monet and the Genesis of His Series,” in Auckland City Art Gallery, Claude Monet: Painter of Light, exh. cat. (Auckland City Art Gallery/NZI, 1985), pp. 19; 20, fig. 10; 21.

John House, Monet: Nature into Art (Yale University Press, 1986), p. 27, pl. 33.

Helen Langdon, Impressionist Seasons (Phaidon, 1986), p. 56, pl. 21.

Richard R. Brettell, Post-Impressionists (Art Institute of Chicago/Abrams, 1987), pp. 35, 36 (ill.), 118.

Ministry of Culture, SSSR; State Hermitage Museum; Pushkin State Museum of Fine Arts; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; and Art Institute of Chicago, Ot Delakrua do Matissa: Shedevry frantsuzskoi zhivopisi XIX–nachala XX veka, iz Muzeia Metropoliten v N’iu-Iorke i Khudozhestvennogo Instituta v Chikago [From Delacroix to Matisse: Masterpieces of French Painting of the Nineteenth to the Beginning of the Twentieth Century from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Art Institute of Chicago], trans. from English by Iu. A. Kleiner and A. A. Zhukov, exh. cat. (Avrora, 1988), pp. 84–85, cat. 31 (ill.).

Janet M. Brooke, Discerning Tastes: Montreal Collectors, 1880–1920, exh. cat. (Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1989), pp. 135; 136, fig. 64; 137, n. 9; 215, no. 882.

Paul Hayes Tucker, Monet in the ’90s: The Series Paintings, exh. cat. (Museum of Fine Arts, Boston/Yale University Press, 1989), pp. 3; 77; 79, pl. 21; 296, cat. 18.

John Sallis, “Monet’s Grainstacks: Shades of Time,” Tema Celeste International Art Magazine 30 (Mar.–Apr. 1991), p. 67, n.12.

Anne Rorimer, “The Date Paintings of On Kawara,” Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies 17, 2 (1991), p. 122, fig. 2.

Virginia Spate, Claude Monet: Life and Work (Rizzoli/Thames & Hudson, 1992), pp. 207; 209, ill. 224.

Andrew Forge, Monet, Artists in Focus (Art Institute of Chicago, 1995), pp. 44; 49; 87, pl. 16; 108.

Charles F. Stuckey, with the assistance of Sophia Shaw, Claude Monet, 1840–1926, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Thames & Hudson, 1995), p. 119, cat. 98 (ill.)

Daniel Wildenstein, Monet, or The Triumph of Impressionism, cat. rais., vol. 1 (Taschen/Wildenstein Institute, 1996), pp. 266–67, cat. 1270 (ill.); 275.

Daniel Wildenstein, Monet: Catalogue raisonné/Werkverzeichnis, vol. 3, Nos. 969–1595 (Taschen/Wildenstein Institute, 1996), pp. 483; 485, cat. 1270 (ill.).

Karin Sagner-Düchting, “Monet’s Late Work from the Vantage Point of Modernism,” in Monet and Modernism, ed. Karin Sagner-Düchting, exh. cat. (Prestel, 2001), p. 25.

Gottfried Boehm, “‘Work’ and ‘Series’: Problems in Modern Conceptions of Pictorial Structure Since Monet,” in Monet and Modernism, ed. Karin Sagner-Düchting, exh. cat. (Prestel, 2001), pp. 154–55 (ill.).

Richard R. Brettell, From Monet to Van Gogh: A History of Impressionism, vol. 2 (Teaching Co., 2002), pp. 161, 166, 183.

Sona Johnston, In Monet’s Light: Theodore Robinson at Giverny, with an essay by Paul Tucker, exh. cat. (Baltimore Museum of Art/Philip Wilson, 2004), pp. 162, fig. 1; 163.

Norio Shimada, Inshoha bijutsukan [The history of Impressionism] (Shogakukan, 2004), p. 279 (ill.).
Barry Venning, “Turner, Monet e l’impressionismo,” in Turner e gli impressionisti: La grande storia del paesaggio moderno in Europa, ed. Marco Goldin, exh. cat. (Linea d’Ombra, 2006), p. 76 (ill.).

Norio Shimada, Claude Monet, Great Masters of Western Art 1 (Shogakukan, 2006), p. 89 (ill.).

Akiko Mabuchi, “Monet—découverte du corps et des sensations” (trans. from the Japanese by Erika Peschard-Erlih), in National Art Center, Tokyo, Monet: L’art de Monet et sa postérité, exh. cat. (National Art Center, Tokyo, 2007), pp. 29, fig. 20; 30; 246.

Eric M. Zafran, “Monet in America,” in Wildenstein and Co., Claude Monet (1840–1926): A Tribute to Daniel Wildenstein and Katia Granoff, exh. cat. (Wildenstein, 2007), p. 127.

Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, The Impressionists: Master Paintings from the Art Institute of Chicago, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago/Kimbell Art Museum, 2008), pp. 22; 103; 108; 156; 157, cat. 76 (ill.). Simultaneously published as Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, The Age of Impressionism at the Art Institute of Chicago (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2008), pp. 22; 103; 108; 156; 157, cat. 76 (ill.).

Iris Schaefer, Caroline von Saint-George, and Katja Lewerentz, Impressionismus: Wie das Licht auf die Leinwand kam, exh. cat. (Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud/Skira, 2008), pp. 23, abb. 9; 26. Translated as Painting Light: The Hidden Techniques of the Impressionists, exh. cat. (Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud/Skira, 2008), pp. 23, ill. 9; 26.

Iris Schaefer, Caroline von Saint-George, and Katja Lewerentz, Impressionismo: Dipingere la luce, Le tecniche nascoste de Monet, Renoir e Van Gogh, ed. Monica Maroni, exh. cat. (Fondazione Palazzo Strozzi/Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Foundation Corboud/Skira, 2008), pp. 23, ill. 9; 26.

Christie’s, London, Post-War and Contemporary Art, sale cat. (Christie’s, July 1, 2010, day auction), p. 126 (ill.).

Terence Maloon, ed., Paths to Abstraction, 1867–1917, exh. cat. (Art Gallery of New South Wales, 2010), p. 108 (ill.).

John Updike, Always Looking: Essays on Art, ed. Christopher Carduff (Knopf, 2012), pp. 74–75 (ill.).

“Cat. 28: Stacks of Wheat (End of Day, Autumn), 1890/91” in Monet Paintings and Drawings at the Art Institute of Chicago, ed. Gloria Groom and Jill Shaw (Art Institute of Chicago, 2014).

Ownership History

Sold by the artist to Durand-Ruel, Paris, July 2, 1891, for 3,200 francs. [1]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, New York, to Potter Palmer, Chicago, July 2, 1891, for $1,200 (or 6,000 francs). [2]

Acquired by Durand-Ruel, New York, by Mar. 7, 1892. [3]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, New York, to Potter Palmer, Chicago, Mar. 7, 1892, for $1,500. [4]

Sold by Potter Palmer, Chicago, to Durand-Ruel, New York, by Apr. 19, 1892. [5]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, New York, to Sir William Van Horne, Montreal, Apr. 19, 1892, for $1,250. [6]

Acquired by Durand-Ruel, New York, by Nov. 22, 1892. [7]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, New York, to Potter Palmer, Chicago, Nov. 22, 1892, for $1,200. [8]

Acquired by Howard Young, New York, by 1932. [9]

Acquired by Mrs. Lewis Larned (Annie Swan) Coburn, Chicago, by 1932. [10]

Bequeathed by Mrs. Lewis Larned (Annie Swan) Coburn (died 1932), Chicago, to the Art Institute of Chicago, 1933.

NOTES

[1] The transaction is recorded in the Durand–Ruel, Paris, stock book for 1891–1901 (no. 1063, as Meules, fin de l’été), and from Brouillard 1888–1891: “Purchased from Monet by DR Paris on 2nd July 1891, for 3 200 F / Stock DR Paris no. 1063,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, June 24, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[2] The transaction is record in the Durand–Ruel, Paris, stock book for 1891–1901 (no. 1063, Meules, fin de l’été), and from Brouillard 1888–1891: “sold to Potter Palmer on the same day (2nd July 1891) for 1 200 dollars = 6 000 F,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, June 24, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. The Durand-Archives further states that “there is a discrepancy in our books about the sale of W 1270 to Potter Palmer: we cannot explain it.”

[3] According to Durand-Ruel, New York, stock book 1888–1893 (no. 859, Meules, fin de l’été): “Sold to Potter Palmer on 7th March 1892 for 1 500 dollars / Stock DR New York no. 859 (previous stock DR Paris no. 1063),” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, June 24, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. The Durand-Archives further states that “there is a discrepancy in our books about the sale of W 1270 to Potter Palmer: we cannot explain it.”

[4] According to Durand-Ruel, New York, stock book 1888–1893 (no. 859, Meules, fin de l’été): “Sold to Potter Palmer on 7 March 1892 for 1 500 dollars / Stock DR New York no. 859 (previous stock DR Paris no. 1063),” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, June 24, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. The Durand-Archives further states that “there is a discrepancy in our books about the sale of W 1270 to Potter Palmer: we cannot explain it.”

[5] The transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, New York, stock book for 1888–93 (no. 924, as Meules, fin de l’été): “Purchased from Potter Palmer by DR New York on (???) / Stock DR New York no. 924 (previous no. 859).” Durand-Ruel, New York Stock Book 1888-1893; as confirmed by see Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, June 24, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. On April 19, 1892, Durand-Ruel, New York, sold the work to W. C. Van Horne; see following footnote.
[6] The transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, New York, stock book for 1888–93 (no. 924, as Meules, fin de l’été): “Sold to W. C. Van Horne on 19 April 1892 for $ 1 250,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, June 24, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. This painting is listed as Van Horne inv. no. 882 in Janet M. Brooke, Discerning Tastes: Montreal Collectors, 1880–1920, exh. cat. (Montreal Museum of Fine Arts, 1989), p. 215.

[7] The transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, New York, stock book for 1888–93 (no. 948, as Meules, fin de l’été): “Purchased from (???) by DR New York on (???) / Stock DR New York no. 948 (previous no. 924),” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, June 24, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. On Nov. 22, 1892, Durand-Ruel, New York, sold the work to Potter Palmer; see following footnote.

[8] The transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, New York, stock book for 1888–93 (no. 948, as Meules, fin de l’été): “Sold to Potter Palmer on 22 November 1892 for $1 200,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, June 24, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[9] According to Art Institute of Chicago, Exhibition of the Mrs. L. L. Coburn Collection: Modern Paintings and Watercolors, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1932), pp. 19-20, cat. 24.

[10] According to Art Institute of Chicago, Exhibition of the Mrs. L. L. Coburn Collection: Modern Paintings and Watercolors, exh. cat. (Art Institute of Chicago, 1932), pp. 19–20, cat. 24.




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