About This Artwork

Mary Cassatt (American, 1844-1926)
printed with Leroy (French, active 1876-1900)

Woman Bathing, 1890–91

Color aquatint, with drypoint from three plates, on off-white laid paper
364 x 269 mm (image/plate); 432 x 305 mm (sheet)
Inscribed recto, lower right, in graphite: "Imprimée par l'artiste et M. Leroy / Mary Cassatt / (25 épreuves)"

Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson Collection, 1932.1281

Images of women washing themselves are ubiquitous in the history of Western art. The female nude in general has long been considered one of the most important subjects of artistic expression, most importantly in the form of history painting, traditionally represented in classical or biblical subjects. However, in the late 19th century progressive artists spurned traditional history painting in favor of contemporary subject matter—art of the moment that represented real life. The artists featured in this gallery made the theme of the bathing woman thoroughly modern. During this period, public health officials encouraged regular bathing not only for cosmetic reasons, but also as a means to combat diseases such as cholera. As a result, more and more people washed indoors regularly. The images in this gallery by Edgar Degas, Félix Vallotton, Pierre Bonnard, and Suzanne Valadon, for example, show modern accouterments of indoor plumbing—large porcelain tubs and taps for running water. Though these prints and drawings allude to contemporary industrial developments and evolving societal expectations, they remain principally devoid of narrative. They depict anonymous women across a range of social classes, including some models who were probably prostitutes, in the intimate act of washing. These artists used the subject of the bathing woman as an evocative means to an end—especially Degas, who returned to the theme of the bather literally hundreds of times between the late 1870s and his death in 1917. Degas utilized bathers to explore the possibilities of the human form—employing multiple angles and viewpoints, depicting its shape and various movements, and reflecting the many colors and textures of the environment.

— Exhibition text panel, Undressed: The Fashion of Privacy, June 22–September 29, 2013, Galleries 124–127.

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Baltimore Museum of Art, "Mary Cassatt," January 7-February 10, 1936, p. 15, cat. 37.

Portland, Maine, Portland Museum of Art, "Miss Mary Cassatt: Impressionist from Pennsylvania," May 17-July 1, 1979.

Williamstown, Mass., Williams College Museum of Art, "Mary Cassatt: The Color Prints," November 25, 1989-January 21, 1990, p. 134, cat. 10-IV, as "Woman Bathing."

The Art Institute of Chicago, "Mary Cassatt: Modern Woman," October 10, 1998-January 10, 1999, pp. 283 and 323, cat. 61 (ill.).

The Art Institute of Chicago, "Undressed: The Fashion of Privacy", June 22-September 29, 2013

Publication History

Adelyn D. Breeskin, The Graphic Work of Mary Cassatt (New York, 1948), p. 73, no. 148.

Nancy Mowll Matthews and Barbara Stern Shapiro, Mary Cassatt: The Color Prints, exh. cat. (New York, 1989), p. 134, cat. 10-IV, as "Woman Bathing."

James N. Wood and Debra N. Mancoff, Treasures from The Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago, 2000), p. 176 (ill.).

Mari Yoshihara, Embracing the East: White Women and American Orientalism (Oxford, 2003).

Ownership History

The artist to Durand-Ruel [Chicago 1998]. Albert Roullier, Chicago [Chicago 1998]. Given by Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson, Chicago, to the Art Institute, 1932.

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