About This Artwork

Côte d'Ivoire

Ceremonial Drum (Pinge), 1930/50

Wood, hide, and applied color
122.9 x 49.2 cm (48 3/8 x 19 3/8 in.)

Robert J. Hall, Herbert R. Molner Discretionary, Curator's Discretionary, and African and Amerindian Art Purchase funds; Arnold Crane, Mrs. Leonard Florsheim, O. Renard Goltra, Holly and David Ross, Departmental Acquisitions, Ada Turnbull Hertle, and Marion and Samuel Klasstorner endowments; through prior gifts of various donors, 1990.137

This elaborate ceremonial drum takes the form of a seated woman gracefully balancing a load on her head. The figure’s stylized features are characteristic of Senufo figural art, in particular that of the hereditary Kulebele woodcarvers, a group of artists who have historically traveled widely to work on location for patrons who commission their work. The strong and dignified female figure that holds this drum aloft evokes the Senufo ideal of women as family founders and spiritual mediators and guardians. Her composed expression projects a sense of inner calm that belies the great weight she carries, while her seated pose reflects a position of honor within the community. The drum’s hide-covered resonating chamber is embellished with motifs that allude to conflict and competition, including warriors, a snake devouring a fish, and a crocodile biting into the decorative edge of the drum itself. These motifs emphasize the importance of knowledge and power in a world of competing spiritual and temporal forces. In some Senufo communities, men play ceremonial drums during agricultural competitions or initiation rituals. Women may also play them during commemorative funerals for women of status.

— Entry, Essential Guide, 2009, p. 17.

This sculpture depicting a woman gracefully balancing a drum on her head also functions as a drum. Played by women, drums like this provide rhythmic percussion and confirm the contributions of women to Senufo society through their thought-provoking sculptural forms. The female figure balances the load on her head with powerful, upraised arms, a rigidly arched back, and a strong neck. Scarification marks, bracelets, and carefully coiffed hair further identify her as a woman of status. The image of the female figure carries profound importance for the matrilineal Senufo of Ivory Coast and Burkino Faso. Women are the founders of families, and they play significant roles in influential initiation associations such as Sandogo and Tyekpa.

— Descriptive text

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Cannes, France, Palais Miramar, Arts d'Afrique et d'Oceanie, July 6–Sept. 29, 1957.

New York, Museum of Primitive Art, Senufo Sculpture from West Africa, Feb. 20–Mar. 5, 1963; traveled to Art Institute of Chicago, July 12–Aug. 11, 1963, and Baltimore Museum of Art, Sept. 17-Oct. 27, 1963, cat. no. 117 (not ill.).

Berkeley, Calif., Lowie Museum of Anthropology, African Arts, 1967, no cat.

Washington, D.C., National Museum of African Art, Smithsonian Institution, Sounding Forms: African Musical Instruments, Apr. 26–June 18, 1989, cat. 130, fig. 26.

Art Institute of Chicago, Senufo Woman and Art: A Caryatid Drum, Apr. 27–Oct. 27, 1991, no cat.

Art Institute of Chicago, For Hearth and Altar: African Ceramics from the Keith Achepohl Collection, Dec. 3, 2005–Feb. 20, 2006, cat. 27.

Cleveland Museum of Art, Senufo: Dynamics of Art and Identity in West Africa, Feb. 22–May 31, 2015, cat. 42; traveled to Saint Louis Art Museum, June 28–Sept. 27, 2015; Montpellier, France, Musée Fabre, Nov. 28, 2015–March 6, 2016 (Cleveland and Saint Louis only).

Publication History

Robert Goldwater, Senufo Sculpture from West Africa (Museum of Primitive Art, New York, 1964), fig. 165 (ill.).

William S. Rubin, Primitivism in 20th Century Art: Affinity of the Tribal and the Modern, (New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1984), p. 289 (ill.).

Anita J. Glaze, "Call and Response: A Senufo Female Caryatid Drum," Notable Acquisitions at the Art Institute of Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies, vol. 19, no. 2 (1993), pp. 118–133 (ill.).

Kathleen E. Bickford and Cherise Smith, "Art of the Western Sudan," African Art at the Art Institute of Chicago, Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies, vol. 23, no. 2 (1997), pp. 118–119 (ill.).

Susan Elizabeth Gagliardi, Senufo: Dynamics of Art and Identity in West Africa (The Cleveland Museum of Art and 5 Continents Press, 2015), p. 79.

Ownership History

Charles Ratton (died 1986), Paris, by 1957; sold to Harry A. Franklin (died 1983), Harry A. Franklin Family Collection, Beverly Hills, Calif., about 1965; sold, Sotheby’s, New York, Apr. 21, 1990, The Harry A. Franklin Family Collection of African Art, lot 47, as A Senufo Memorial Drum, to the Art Institute.

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