About This Artwork

Camille Pissarro
French, 1830-1903

The Crystal Palace, 1871

Oil on canvas
47.2 x 73.5 cm (19 x 29 in.)
Inscribed lower left: C. Pissarro 1871.

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. B. E. Bensinger, 1972.1164

This work is featured in the online catalogue Pissarro Paintings and Works on Paper at the Art Institute of Chicago. This is the museum’s fourth volume in its scholarly digital series on the Impressionist circle. The catalogue offers in-depth curatorial and technical entries on 17 paintings and drawings by Camille Pissarro as well as a checklist of the artist’s prints in the museum’s collection. The entries feature interactive and layered high-resolution imaging, videos, and previously unpublished technical photographs in addition to archival materials and documentation relating to each artwork.

Camille Pissarro and his family left France in 1870–71 to escape the Prussian invasion and subsequent civil uprising (known as the Commune). They spent these years in Lower Norwood, outside London. In the neighboring town of Sydenham, Pissarro painted the glass-and-iron Crystal Palace, which was originally designed by Joseph Paxton in 1851 for London’s Hyde Park. Although it was immediately acclaimed for its modern architecture, only two years later the building was dismantled and reassembled in Sydenham. (It was destroyed by fire in 1936.) In this small oil painting, Pissarro relegated what was considered the world’s largest building to the left side of the canvas, as if to give equal space to the “modern-life” scene of families and carriages parading by Sydenham’s more recently constructed middle-class homes.

— Permanent collection label

Exhibition, Publication and Ownership Histories

Exhibition History

Possibly Paris, Galerie Durand-Ruel, Exposition Camille Pissarro: Tableaux, aquarelles, pastels, gouaches, Mar. 3–21, 1894, cat. 6, as Upper Norwood, Crystal Palace, or as cat. 7, as Upper Norwood, Crystal Palace, temps de neige.

Glasgow, International Exhibition, May 2–Nov. 1901, cat. 1371, as Crystal Palace, lent by C. J. Galloway, Esq.

London, New Gallery, Sixth Exhibition of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters, and Gravers, Jan.–Feb. 1906, cat. 208.

Manchester City Art Gallery, Exhibition of Modern French Paintings, Winter 1907–08, cat. 167.

Kunsthalle Mannheim, Werke der Malerei des 19. Jahrhunderts, Dec. 1909, cat. 64.

City Art Museum of St. Louis, Loan Exhibition of French Painting, 1800–1880, Jan. 1931, cat. 24.

New York, Durand-Ruel Galleries, Paintings by Degas, Renoir, Monet, Pissarro, and Sisley prior to 1880, Oct. 12–Nov. 2, 1931, cat. 3 (ill.).

New York, Union League Club, Paintings by the Master Impressionists, Nov. 8–20, 1932, cat. 13.

New York, Durand-Ruel Galleries, Paintings by Camille Pissarro in Retrospect, Jan. 3–24, 1933, cat. 2.

City Art Museum of St. Louis, Paintings by French Impressionists (1860–1880), Apr. 17–May 16, 1934, no cat.

New York, Durand-Ruel Galleries, Paintings by the Master Impressionists, Oct. 15–Nov. 10, 1934, cat. 19.

Toronto, Mallows Fine Arts, [paintings lent by Durand-Ruel], Dec. 1934–Feb. 1935.

Kansas City, William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, One Hundred Years: French Painting, 1820–1920, Mar. 31–Apr. 28, 1935, cat. 44.

Springfield (Mass.) Museum of Fine Arts, Master Impressionists, October 12–31, 1937, cat. 7.

New York, Durand-Ruel Galleries, French Paintings from 1870 to 1880, Jan. 3–22, 1938, cat. 4.

New York, Durand-Ruel Galleries, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley before 1890, Nov. 14–Dec. 3, 1938, cat. 11.

Los Angeles Museum, The Development of Impressionism, Jan. 12–Feb. 28, 1940, cat. 50.

Detroit Institute of Arts, The Age of Impressionism and Objective Realism, May 3–June 2, 1940, cat. 32.

New York, Durand-Ruel and Knoedler Galleries, Loan Exhibitions—Paintings of London and Paris for the Benefit of the British War Relief Society, Oct. 29–Nov. 16, 1940, cat. 21 (Knoedler only).

Detroit Society of Arts and Crafts, Paintings by Camille Pissarro, Feb. 1941, no cat.

New York, Durand-Ruel Galleries, The Art of Camille Pissarro in Retrospect, Mar. 24–Apr. 15, 1941, cat. 7.

New York, Durand-Ruel Galleries, Exhibition Celebrating the One Hundred Fortieth Anniversary, Nov. 15–Dec. 4, 1943, cat. 15.

New Haven, Yale University Art Gallery, Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture Collected by Yale Alumni, May 19–June 26, 1960, cat. 57 (ill.).

Andover, Mass., Phillips Academy, Addison Gallery, Alumni Treasures, May 19–June 18, 1967, cat. 255 (ill.).

New York, Acquavella Galleries, Four Masters of Impressionism, Oct. 24–Nov. 30, 1968, cat. 3 (ill.).

London, Hayward Gallery, The Impressionists in London, Jan. 3–Mar. 11, 1973, cat. 33 (ill.).

New York, Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Retrospective of a Gallery—Twenty Years, Nov. 8–Dec. 1, 1973, cat. 74 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Art at the Time of the Centennial, June 19–Aug. 8, 1976, no cat.

Detroit Institute of Arts, Arts and Crafts in Detroit, 1906–1976: The Movement, the Society, the School, Nov. 26, 1976–Jan. 19, 1977, cat. 276 (ill.).

London, Hayward Gallery, Pissarro: Camille Pissarro 1830–1903, Oct. 30, 1980–Jan. 11, 1981, cat. 15 (ill.); Paris, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, Jan. 30–Apr. 27, 1981; Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, May 19–Aug. 9, 1981.

Tokyo, Seibu Museum of Art, Shikago bijutsukan insho-ha ten [The impressionist tradition: Masterpieces from the Art Institute of Chicago], Oct. 18–Dec. 17, 1985, cat. 20 (ill.); Fukuoka Art Museum, Jan. 5–Feb. 2, 1986; Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, Mar. 4–Apr. 13, 1986.

Brooklyn Museum of Art, William Merritt Chase: Modern American Landscapes, 1886–1809, May 26–Aug. 13, 2000, not in cat.; Art Institute of Chicago, Sept. 9–Nov. 26, 2000; Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Dec. 13, 2000–Mar. 11, 2001 (Chicago only).

Publication History

Charles J. Galloway, Catalogue of Paintings and Drawings at Thorneyholme, Cheshire, Collected by Charles J. Galloway (G. Galkner, 1892), opp. p. 94 (ill.): p. 20, no. 49.

Possibly Galerie Durand-Ruel, Exposition Camille Pissarro: Tableaux, aquarelles, pastels, gouaches: Catalogue, exh. cat. ([Durand-Ruel], 1894), p. 3, cat. 6 or 7.

L. Cardon, “Camille Pissarro,” L’evénement, Mar. 6, 1894.

A. Alexandre, “L’art à Paris: Camille Pissarro,” Paris, Mar. 8, 1894.

International Exhibition, Glasgow, 1901: Official Catalogue of the Fine Art Section, exh. cat. (Chas. P. Watson, 1901), p. 91, cat. 1371.

“Pictures,” in “Auction Sale Prices,” supplement, Connoisseur 7, 44 (July 31, 1905), p. 100.

New Gallery, London, A Catalogue of the Pictures and Sculpture in the Sixth Exhibition of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters, and Gravers, exh. cat. (Ballantyne & Co., 1906), p. 34, cat. 208.

Manchester City Art Gallery, Handbook to the Exhibition of Modern French Paintings, exh. cat. (Taylor, Garnett, Evans, 1907), p. 34, cat. 167.

Kunsthalle Mannheim, Ausstellung von Werken der Malerei des 19. jahrhunderts, exh. cat. (Kunsthalle Mannheim, 1909), cat. 64.

Adolphe Tabarant, Pissarro, trans. J. Lewis May, Masters of Modern Art (Dodd, Mead, and Company, 1925), pl. 10.

Durand–Ruel Galleries, Exhibition of Paintings by Degas, Renoir, Monet, Pissarro and Sisley prior to 1880, exh. cat. (Durand-Ruel, 1931), cat. 3 (ill.).

M. R. R., “Loan Exhibition of French Painting, 1800–1880,” Bulletin of the City Art Museum of St. Louis, supplement, 16, 1 (Jan. 1931), pp. 14; 16, cat. 24.

Union League Club of New York, Exhibition of Paintings by the Master Impressionists, exh. cat. (Union League Club, 1932), cat. 13.

Durand–Ruel Galleries, Exhibition of Paintings by Camille Pissarro in Retrospect, exh. cat. (Durand-Ruel, [1933]), cat. 2.

Durand–Ruel, Exhibition of Paintings by the Master Impressionists, exh. cat. (Durand-Ruel, 1934), cat. 19.

William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, One Hundred Years: French Painting, 1820–1920, exh. cat. (William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art and Mary Atkins Museum of Fine Arts, 1935), cat. 44.

Springfield Museum of Fine Arts, Master Impressionists, exh. cat. (Springfield Museum of Fine Arts, 1937), cat. 7.

Durand-Ruel Galleries, French Paintings from 1870 to 1880, exh. cat. (Durand-Ruel, 1938), cat. 4.

Durand-Ruel Galleries, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley before 1890, exh. cat. (Durand-Ruel, 1938), cat. 11.

Lionello Venturi, “L’art de Camille Pissarro (étude critique),” in Ludovic Rodo Pissarro and Lionello Venturi, Camille Pissarro: Son art—son oeuvre, vol. 1, Texte (Paul Rosenberg, 1939), pp. 30–31.

Ludovic Rodo Pissarro and Lionello Venturi, Camille Pissarro: Son art—son oeuvre, vol. 1, Texte (Rosenberg, 1939), p. 94, cat. 109.

Ludovic Rodo Pissarro and Lionello Venturi, Camille Pissarro: Son art—son oeuvre, vol. 2, Planche (Rosenberg, 1939), pl. 22, cat. 109.

George Slocombe, Rebels of Art: Manet to Matisse (Robert M. McBride and Company, 1939), pl. 6.

Durand-Ruel and Knoedler Galleries, Loan Exhibitions—Paintings of London and Paris for the Benefit of the British War Relief Society, exh. cat. (Knoedler, [1940]), cat. 21.

Los Angeles Museum, The Development of Impressionism, exh. cat. (Los Angeles Museum, 1940), cat. 50.

John Rewald, Pissarro (Braun & Cie, [1940]), cat. 18 (ill.).

“The Age of Impressionism and Objective Realism, Catalogue,” Art News, May 4, 1940, p. 3, no. 32.

John S. Newberry, “The Age of Impressionism and Realism, Detroit’s Anniversary Exhibit,” Art News 38, 31 (May 4, 1940), p. 11 (ill.).

Thomas C. Linn, “Benefit Art Show Will Assist Allies, Laymen’s League to Stage an Exhibit, Reception, and Auction on July 17,” New York Times, June 30, 1940, p. 38.

Edward Alden Jewell, “London and Paris Portrayed in Art, Paintings of Two Cities Offered in Shows at Knoedler’s and Durand-Ruel’s,” New York Times, Oct. 29, 1940, p. 30.

Edward Alden Jewell, “The WPA Advisory Group, A New and Larger Committee Is to Pass upon Caliber of Project Work,” New York Times, Nov. 3, 1940, p. 145.

Durand-Ruel Galleries, The Art of Camille Pissarro in Retrospect, exh. cat. (Durand-Ruel, 1941), cat. 7.

Lionello Venturi, “Camille Pissarro,” in Durand-Ruel Galleries, The Art of Camille Pissarro in Retrospect, exh. cat. (Durand-Ruel, 1941), n.p.

Edward Alden Jewell, “Other Shows,” New York Times, Jan. 26, 1941, p. X9.

Durand-Ruel Galleries, Exhibition Celebrating the One Hundred Fortieth Anniversary (Durand-Ruel, 1943), cat. 15.

John Rewald,“ 140 Years, One Man’s Faith,” Art News 42, 2 (Dec. 1–14, 1943), pp. 23–24 (ill.), 50.

John Rewald, The History of Impressionism (Museum of Modern Art, New York/Simon & Schuster, 1946), p. 216 (ill.).

Germain Bazin, “Éphémérides impressionistes,” in “Numéro spécial sur l’impressionnisme,” special issue, L’amour de l’art 27, 3–4 (1947), p. 125 (ill.).

Yale University Art Gallery, Paintings, Drawings and Sculpture Collected by Yale Alumni, An Exhibition, exh. cat. (Yale University Art Gallery, 1960), pp. 56¬–57, cat. 57 (ill.).

Phillips Academy, Addison Gallery, Alumni Treasures: An Exhibition Selected from Works of Art Owned by Alumni of Phillips Academy, exh. cat. (Addison Gallery of American Art, 1967), pp. 54, cat. 255; 70 (ill.).

Phoebe Pool, Impressionism (Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 102; 104, fig. 75.

Acquavella Galleries, Four Masters of Impressionism, exh. cat. (Acquavella Galleries, 1968), cat. 3 (ill.).

Dénes Pataky, Pissarro (Corvina kiadó, 1972), p. 13, pl. 16.

Alan Bowness, “Introduction,” in Hayward Gallery, The Impressionists in London, exh. cat. (Arts Council of Great Britain/Fanfare for Europe, 1973), p. 8.

Hayward Gallery, The Impressionists in London, exh. cat. (Arts Council of Great Britain/Fanfare for Europe, 1973), p. 55, cat. 33 (ill.).

Hirschl & Adler Galleries, Retrospective of a Gallery—Twenty Years, exh. cat. (Hirschl & Adler Galleries, 1973), cat. 74 (ill.).

John House, “The Impressionists in London,” Burlington Magazine 115, 840 (Mar. 1973), pp. 194; 195, fig. 34.

Detroit Institute of Arts, Arts and Crafts in Detroit 1906–1976: The Movement, the Society, the School, exh. cat. (Detroit Institute of Arts, 1976), p. 205, cat. 276 (ill.).

Martin Reid, “Camille Pissarro: Three Paintings of London of 1871; What Do They Represent?,” in “Special Issue in Honour of Benedict Nicolson,” Burlington Magazine 119, 889 (Apr. 1977), p. 254.

Art Institute of Chicago, 100 Masterpieces (Art Institute of Chicago, 1978), p. 98 (ill.)

John House, “New Material on Monet and Pissarro in London in 1870–71, ”Burlington Magazine 120, 907 (Oct. 1978), p. 638.

J. Patrice Marandel, The Art Institute of Chicago: Favorite Impressionist Paintings (Crown, 1979), pp. 16, 17 (ill.).

Hayward Gallery, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Pissarro: Camille Pissarro 1830–1903, exh. cat. (Arts Council of Great Britain/Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1980), pp. 82, cat. 15 (ill.); 83.

Ralph E. Shikes and Paula Harper, Pissarro: His Life and Work (Horizon Press, 1980), p. 92.

Hayward Gallery, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,Pissarro: Camille Pissarro 1830–1903, trans. Claude Lauriol, exh. cat. (Arts Council of Great Britain/Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1981), pp. 82, cat. 15 (ill.); 83.

Christopher Lloyd, Camille Pissarro (Skira/Rizzoli, 1981), p. 48 (ill.).

Christopher Lloyd, “Camille Pissarro: Towards a Reassessment,” Art International 25, 1–2 (Jan. 1982), p. 60 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Seibu Museum of Art, Kyoto Municipal Museum of Art, and Fukuoka Art Museum, eds., Shikago bijutsukan insho-ha ten [The impressionist tradition: Masterpieces from the Art Institute of Chicago], trans. Akihiko Inoue, Hideo Namba, Heisaku Harada, and Yoko Maeda, exh. cat. (Nihon Nippon Television Network, 1985), pp. 56, cat. 20 (ill.); 57 (detail); 139–40, cat. 20 (ill.).

Martin Reed, “The Pissarro Family in the Norwood Area of London, 1870–71: Where Did They Live?,” Studies on Camille Pissarro (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1986), p. 63, n. 2.

Richard R. Brettell, French Impressionists (Art Institute of Chicago/Abrams, 1987), pp. 14 (ill.), 15, 118.

Nicholas Reed, Camille Pissarro at the Crystal Palace (London Reference Books, 1987), front cover (detail); pp. 2, pl. 4; 4; 17.

Art Institute of Chicago, Master Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood and Katharine C. Lee (Art Institute of Chicago/New York Graphic Society Books/Little, Brown, 1988), p. 55 (ill.).

David Bomford, Jo Kirby, John Leighton, and Ashok Roy, Art in the Making: Impressionism (National Gallery, London/Yale University Press, 1990), p. 141, pl. 119.

Jean-Jacques Lévêque, Les années impressionistes: 1870–1889 (ACR, 1990), p. 199 (ill.).

Katsumi Miyazaki, Insho-ha no miryoky/The Great History of Art (Dohosha Shuppan, 1990), p. 24 (ill.).

Christopher Lloyd, with notes by Amanda Renshaw, Pissarro, rev. and enlarged ed. (Phaidon, 1992), back cover (ill.); pp. 9, fig. 4; 30.

MaryAnne Stevens, ed., Alfred Sisley, exh. cat. (Royal Academy of Arts, London/Musée d’Orsay/Walters Art Gallery/Yale University Press, 1992), p. 130.

Art Institute of Chicago, Treasures of 19th- and 20th-Century Painting: The Art Institute of Chicago, with an introduction by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Abbeville, 1993), p. 53 (ill.).

Joachim Pissarro, Camille Pissarro (Abrams, 1993), pp. 86; 87, fig. 88.

Martin Reid, Pissarro (Studio, 1993), pp. 62–63 (ill.), 143.

Linda Doeser, The Life and Works of Pissarro (Shooting Star Press, 1994), p. 14 (ill.).

Andrew Miller, “Epistemological Claustrophobia and the Possibilities of Critical Transcendence,” Yale Journal of Criticism 7, 2 (1994), pp. 139–40, fig. 2.

Eric Shanes, Impressionist London (Abbeville, 1994), pp. 16 (detail); 34, fig. 23.

Martha Ward, Pissarro, Neo-Impressionism, and the Spaces of the Avant-Garde (University of Chicago Press, 1996), pp. 258; 259, fig. 11.10.

Jean Leymarie, Camille Pissarro, trans. Renata Ricci, exh. cat. (Palazzo dei Diamanti, 1998), pp. 28, fig. 18; 29.

Jeffrey A. Auerbach, The Great Exhibition of 1851: A Nation on Display (Yale University Press, 1999), p. 203, fig. 66.

Christoph Becker, “Camille Pissarro, Impressionist Artist,” in Christoph Becker, with essays by Wolf Eiermann, Ralph Melcher, and Barbara Stern Shapiro, Camille Pissarro, exh. cat. (Staatsgalerie Stuttgart/Hatje Cantz, 1999), pp. 49; 53, cat. 11 (ill.); 141, n. 14.

Christoph Becker, with essays by Wolf Eiermann, Ralph Melcher, and Barbara Stern Shapiro, Camille Pissarro, exh. cat. (Staatsgalerie Stuttgart/Hatje Cantz, 1999), p. 187.

Terry W. Strieter, Nineteenth-Century European Art: A Topical Dictionary (Greenwood, 1999), pp. 50, 234.

Andreas Blühm and Louise Lippincott, Light: The Industrial Age, 1750–1900; Art and Science, Technology and Society, exh. cat. (Van Gogh Museum/Carnegie Museum of Art/Thames & Hudson, 2000), p. 240 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 2000), p. 36 (ill.).

Art Institute of Chicago, Treasures from the Art Institute of Chicago, selected by James N. Wood, with commentaries by Debra N. Mancoff (Art Institute of Chicago/Hudson Hills, 2000), p. 199 (ill.).

Belinda Thomson, Impressionism: Origins, Practice, Reception (Thames & Hudson, 2000), pp. 46, fig. 35; 47.

Richard Brettell, From Monet to Van Gogh: A History of Impressionism, vol. 2 (Teaching Company, 2002), pp. 104, 111, 175.

Sylvie Patin, L’impressionisme (Bibliothèque des Arts, 2002), pp. 54; 55, fig. 36; 295.

J. R. Piggott, Palace of the People: The Crystal Palace at Sydenham, 1854–1936 (University of Wisconsin Press, 2004), p. 168 (ill.).

Joachim Pissarro and Claire Durand-Ruel Snollaerts, with the collaboration of Alexia de Buffévent and Annie Champié, Pissarro: Catalogue critique des peintures/Critical Catalogue of Paintings, vol. 1, trans. Mark Hutchinson and Michael Taylor (Skira/Wildenstein Institute, 2005), pp. 365, 367, 368, 376, 377, 378, 379, 381, 382, 383, 384, 393, 398, 401, 403, 406, 409, 422.

Joachim Pissarro and Claire Durand-Ruel Snollaerts, with the collaboration of Alexia de Buffévent and Annie Champié, Pissarro: Catalogue critique des peintures/Critical Catalogue of Paintings, vol. 2, trans. Mark Hutchinson and Michael Taylor (Skira/Wildenstein Institute, 2005), p. 157, cat. 183 (ill.).

Christopher Lloyd, “Camille Pissarro and the Essence of Place,” in Katherine Rothkopf, with an essay by Christopher Lloyd and contributions by Gülru Çakmak and Mary Sebera, Pissarro: Creating the Impressionist Landscape, exh. cat. (Baltimore Museum of Art/Philip Wilson, 2006), p. 33, fig. 12.

Jean-Jacques Lévêque, Camille Pissarro, 1830–1903: Le bonheur de peindre (ACR, 2006), pp. 62–63 (ill.).

Richard Dennis, Cities in Modernity: Representations and Productions of Metropolitan Space, 1840–1930 (Cambridge University Press, 2008), pp. 170; 171, fig. 6.4.

Frances Fowle, with contributions by Vivien Hamilton and Jennifer Melville, Impressionism and Scotland, exh. cat. (National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburg, 2008), p. 70, fig. 89.

James H. Rubin, Impressionism and the Modern Landscape: Productivity, Technology, and Urbanization from Manet to Van Gogh (University of California Press, 2008), p. 123, fig. 83.

Jane E. Boyd, “The Mapping of Modernity: Impressionist Landscapes, Engineering, and Transportation Imagery in 19th-Century France” (Ph.D. diss., University of Delaware, 2009), pp. x; 33; 297, fig. 2.10.

Gloria Groom and Douglas Druick, with the assistance of Dorota Chudzicka and Jill Shaw, The Age of French Impressionism: Masterpieces from the Art Institute of Chicago, rev. and expanded ed. (Art Institute of Chicago/Yale University Press, 2010; repr. 2013), pp. 61, cat. 23 (ill.).

Kathleen Adler, A Time and a Place: Near Sydenham Hill by Camille Pissarro, Kimbell Masterpiece Series (Kimbell Art Museum/Yale University Press, 2011), p. 41, fig. 33 (ill.).

Claire Durand-Ruel Snollaerts, Pissarro: Patriarche des impressionnistes (Découvertes Gallimard/Réunion des Musées Nationaux Arts, 2012), pp. 26 (ill.), 122.

T. J. Clark, “Lowry’s Other England,” in T. J. Clark and Anne M. Wagner, Lowry and the Painting of Modern Life (Tate Publishing, 2013), pp. 39; 41, fig. 15.

Guillermo Solana, “The Road in Pissarro,” in Richard R. Brettell, Joachim Pissarro, and Guillermo Solana, Pissarro, trans. Michael Agnew, exh. cat. (Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, 2013), pp. 20, fig. 4; 21.

“Cat. 4: The Crystal Palace, 1871,” in Pissarro Paintings and Works on Paper at the Art Institute of Chicago, eds. Gloria Groom and Genevieve Westerby (Art Institute of Chicago, 2015).

Ownership History

Acquired by Charles J. Galloway, Thorneyholme, Kunstford, Cheshire, by 1892. [1]

Sold at the Charles J. Galloway estate sale, Christie’s, London, June 26, 1905, lot 279, to Bernheim–Jeune, Paris, for £68.5. [2]

Sold by Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, to Durand-Ruel, Paris, July 4, 1905. [3]

Transferred from Durand-Ruel, Paris, to Durand-Ruel, New York, by Jan. 1931. [4]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, New York, to Henry Johnson Fisher, Greenwich, Conn., June 19, 1941. [5]

By descent from Henry Johnson Fisher (died 1965), Greenwich, Conn., to his family. [6]

Sold by the Fisher family to Hirschl & Adler, New York, Apr. 6, 1970. [7]

Sold by Hirschl & Adler, New York, to Mr. B. E. Bensinger, Chicago, June 14, 1971. [8]

Given by Mr. and Mrs. B. E. Bensinger, Chicago, to the Art Institute of Chicago, beginning in 1972. [9]

NOTES

[1] See Charles J. Galloway, Catalogue of Paintings and Drawings at Thorneyholme, Cheshire, Collected by Charles J. Galloway (G. Galkner, 1892), opp. p. 94 (ill.); p. 20, cat. 49. According to the catalogue (p. 2) all pictures that are marked with an A were purchased directly from the artist. The Art Institute’s painting is listed as cat. 49, and no A accompanies the catalogue description, so it is likely that Galloway did not purchase the paintingdirectly from Pissarro. According to John Rewald “140 Years, One Man’s Faith,” Art News 42, 2 (Dec. 1–14, 1943), pp. 23–24, the painting was purchased from the artist by Paul Durand-Ruel in 1871 while both were in London, and that this painting was Durand-Ruel’s first purchase from the artist. According to Hayward Gallery, Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,Pissarro: Camille Pissarro 1830–1903, exh. cat. (Arts Council of Great Britain/Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1980), p. 82, cat. 15 (ill), this purchase directly from the artist by Durand-Ruel cannot be substantiated. See also John House, “New Material on Monet and Pissarro in London in 1870–71,”Burlington Magazine 120, 907 (Oct. 1978), pp. 636–42; in which House discusses Pissarro in London and Durand-Ruel’s initial purchases from the artist. For House (p. 638), based on the titles recorded by Durand-Ruel, “it seems unlikely that Pissarro showed or sold . . . either of his Crystal Palace views (PV 107 and 109); he may have felt that less overtly modern subject matter stood a greater chance of success.”

[2] See Christie’s, Catalogue of the Important Collection of Modern Pictures and Water Colour Drawings of Charles J. Galloway, Esq., sale cat. (Christie’s, London, June 24–27, 1905), p. 49, lot 279, as The Crystal Palace. The sale price and buyer are according to an annotated copy of the sale catalogue located in the Ryerson Library, Art Institute of Chicago. See also “Pictures,” in “Auction Sale Prices,” supplement, The Connoisseur 7, 44 (July 31, 1905), p. 100, which includes the sale price.

[3] According to the Durand-Ruel Archives, “Nous avons acheté ce tableau à Bernheim-Jeune le 4 Juillet 1905.” See Caroline Durand-Ruel Godfroy, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute, Mar. 30, 2000, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. The same letter further states that the painting was for a time a part of the Durand-Ruel family’s private collection—first with Paul Durand-Ruel in his apartment on the rue de Rome in Paris, and in New York by 1931—“dès avant 1911, il est indiqué comme se trouvant rue de Rome, dans l’appartement de Paul Durand-Ruel, faisant donc partie de la collection privée de mon arrière-grand-père. Il est ensuite envoyé à Durand-Ruel New York, à une date malheureusement inconnue, mais en tout cas au plus tard en 1931. En Mars 1936, date de sa remise en dépôt chez Durand-Ruel New York, il sort de la collection privée familiale et sera vendu à Mr. H. J. Fisher le 19 Juin 1941.”

[4] According to the Durand-Ruel Archives, “Il est ensuite envoyé à Durand-Ruel New York, à une date malheureusement inconnue, mais en tout cas au plus tard en 1931.” See Caroline Durand-Ruel Godfroy, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute, Mar. 30, 2000, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. The painting was included in Loan Exhibition of French Painting, held at the City Art Museum of St. Louis, January 1931; see M. R. R., “Loan Exhibition of French Painting, 1800–1880,” Bulletin of the City Art Museum of St. Louis, supplement, 16, 1 (Jan. 1931), pp. 14; 16, no. 24, which records the painting as on loan from Durand-Ruel, New York.

[5] According to the Durand-Ruel Archives, “vendu à Mr. H. J. Fisher le 19 Juin 1941”; see Caroline Durand-Ruel Godfroy, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute, Mar. 30, 2000, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[6] See Phillips Academy, Addison Gallery, Alumni Treasures: An Exhibition Selected from Works of Art Owned by Alumni of Phillips Academy, exh. cat. (Addison Gallery of American Art, 1967), pp. 54, cat. 255; 70 (ill.), in which cat. 255 is recorded as being on loan from the family of Henry Johnson Fisher. This exhibition was held May 19–June 18, 1967.

[7] See Greg Hedberg, Hirschl and Adler, to Gloria Groom, e-mail correspondence, Dec. 1, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. According to Hedberg the painting was sent to the Art Institute on May 19, 1970, and was returned to Hirschl and Adler on October 14, 1970. This is consistent with receipt of objects 23263 (on file in Museum Registration, Art Institute of Chicago), which indicates that the painting was at the Art Institute for consideration for purchase by May 20, 1970.

[8] See Greg Hedberg, Hirschl and Adler, to Gloria Groom, e-mail correspondence, Dec. 1, 2014, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[9] The painting was given to the Art Institute of Chicago in undivided fractional interests beginning in 1972. The Art Institute received the final fractional interest for one hundred percent ownership in 1974.




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